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Here we review studies that provided important information about conformational properties of DNA using circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy. The conformational properties include the B-family of structures, A-form, Z-form, guanine quadruplexes, cytosine quadruplexes, triplexes and other less characterized structures. CD spectroscopy is extremely sensitive(More)
Nucleic acid structure-function correlations are pivotal to major biological events like transcription, replication, and recombination. Depending on intracellular conditions in vivo and buffer composition in vitro, DNA appears capable of inexhaustible structure variation. At moderately acidic, or even neutral pH, DNA strands that are rich in cytosine bases(More)
DNA usually adopts structure B in aqueous solution, while structure A is preferred in mixtures of trifluoroethanol (TFE) with water. However, the octamer d(CCCCGGGG) and other d(C(n)G(n)) fragments of DNA provide CD spectra that suggest that the base-pairs are stacked in an A-like fashion even in aqueous solution. Yet, d(CCCCGGGG) undergoes a cooperative(More)
The arrangement of the human telomeric quadruplex in physiologically relevant conditions has not yet been unambiguously determined. Our spectroscopic results suggest that the core quadruplex sequence G(3)(TTAG(3))(3) forms an antiparallel quadruplex of the same basket type in solution containing either K(+) or Na(+) ions. Analogous sequences extended by(More)
Circular dichroism (CD) is remarkably sensitive to the conformational states of nucleic acids; therefore, CD spectroscopy has been used to study most features of DNA and RNA structures. Quadruplexes are among the significant noncanonical nucleic acids architectures that have received special attentions recently. This article presents examples on the(More)
In the literature, the thrombin binding aptamer GGTTGGTGTGGTTGG is generally taken as a prototype of an intramolecular guanine tetraplex of DNA. Our results, however, show that this notion is not true in aqueous solutions. This conclusion is based on a dependence of the CD spectra on aptamer concentration, migration of the aptamer in polyacrylamide gels,(More)
DNA concentration has been recently suggested to be the reason why different arrangements are revealed for K(+)-stabilized human telomere quadruplexes by experimental methods requiring DNA concentrations differing by orders of magnitude. As Raman spectroscopy can be applied to DNA samples ranging from those accessible by absorption and CD spectroscopies up(More)
Secondary structures of the G-rich strand of human telomere DNA fragments G3(TTAG3)n, n = 1-16, have been studied by means of circular dichroism spectroscopy and PAGE, in solutions of physiological potassium cation concentrations. It has been found that folding of these fragments into tetraplexes as well as tetraplex thermostabilities and enthalpy values(More)
We have used CD spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and unrestrained molecular dynamics to study conformational properties of a DNA duplex formed by the self-complementary octamer d(GGGGCCCC). Its unusual CD spectrum contains features indicating A-like stacking of half of the bases, whereas the other half stack in a B-like fashion. Unrestrained molecular(More)
Guanine tetraplexes are a biologically relevant alternative of the Watson and Crick duplex of DNA. It is thought that potassium or other cations present in the cavity between consecutive guanine tetrads are an integral part of the tetraplexes. Here we show using CD spectroscopy that ethanol induces the guanine tetraplexes like or even better than potassium(More)