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Problem statement: In recent years, as digital media are gaining wider popularity, their security related issues are becoming greater concern. Method for authenticating and assuring the integrity of the image is required. Image authentication is possible by embedding a layer of the authentication signature into the digital image using a digital watermark.(More)
Data hiding is usually achieved by alternating some nonessential information in the host message. A more challenging problem is to hide data in a two - color binary image. Hiding is difficult for the binary image since each of its black or white pixels requires only one bit representation. So that, changing a pixel can be easily detected. In this paper, we(More)
— In this paper, a new reversible image authentication technique with tamper localization based on watermarking in integer wavelet transform is proposed. If the image authenticity is verified, then the distortion due to embedding the watermark can be completely removed from the watermarked image. If the image is tampered, then the tampering positions can(More)
Spatial co-location patterns are the subsets of Boolean spatial features whose instances are often located in close geographic proximity. Co-location rules can be identified by spatial statistics or data mining approaches. In data mining method, Association rule-based approaches can be used which are further divided into transaction-based approaches and(More)
This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB) for use with network management protocols in the Internet community. In particular, it describes additional managed objects and textual conventions for tunnels, identifiers, and Label Switching Routers to support Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) MIB modules for transport networks.(More)