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A novel type of bacterium has been isolated from various geothermally heated locales on the sea floor. The organisms are strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, fermentative, extremely thermophilic and grow between 55 and 90°C with an optimum of around 80°C. Cells show a unique sheath-like structure and monotrichous flagellation. By 16S rRNA sequencing they clearly(More)
To initiate gene transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) requires the transcription factor IIB (B). Here we present the crystal structure of the complete Pol II-B complex at 4.3 A resolution, and complementary functional data. The results indicate the mechanism of transcription initiation, including the transition to RNA elongation. Promoter DNA is(More)
A novel thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, VM1T, has been isolated from a marine hydrothermal area of Vulcano Island, Italy. Cells of the strain were gram-negative rods, 2-4 microm long and 1-1.5 microm wide with four to seven monopolarly inserted flagella. Cells grew chemolithoautotrophically under an atmosphere of H2/CO2 (80:20) in the presence(More)
Extremely thermophilic archaebacteria are known to be metabolizers of elemental sulfur and the methanogens. A novel group of extremely thermophilic archaebacteria is described, which consists of sulfate-respiring organisms that contain pure factor 420 and that have been isolated from marine hydrothermal systems in Italy. They possess a third type of(More)
Protein biosynthesis, the translation of the genetic code into polypeptides, occurs on ribonucleoprotein particles called ribosomes. Although X-ray structures of bacterial ribosomes are available, high-resolution structures of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are lacking. Using cryoelectron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction, we have determined the(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii encodes two putative transcription regulators, Ptr1 and Ptr2, that are members of the Lrp/AsnC family of bacterial transcription regulators. In contrast, this archaeon's RNA polymerase and core transcription factors are of eukaryotic type. Using the M. jannaschii high-temperature in vitro transcription(More)
Archaea have a eukaryotic type of transcriptional machinery containing homologues of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB (TFB) and a pol II type of RNA polymerase, whereas transcriptional regulators identified in archaeal genomes have bacterial counterparts. We describe here a novel regulator of heat shock response, Phr, from the(More)
The archaeal transcriptional initiation machinery closely resembles core elements of the eukaryal polymerase II system. However, apart from the established basal archaeal transcription system, little is known about the modulation of gene expression in archaea. At present, no obvious eukaryal-like transcriptional regulators have been identified in archaea.(More)
An angular plate-shaped weakly motile mesophilic methanogen was isolated from a swamp of drilling waste in Italy. Growth occurs on H2/CO2 or on formate. Acetate is required in addition. The optimal doubling time is 7 h at 40° C. The cell envelope is composed most likely of glycoprotein subunits in hexagonal arrangement. The GC-content of its DNA is 47.5(More)
A novel thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenophilus hirschii Yel5aT (= DSM 11420T = JCM 10831T) has been isolated from the Angel Terrace Spring, Yellowstone National Park. The isolate was rod-shaped (1.0-1.5 x 0.8 microm) with a polarly inserted flagellum. Cells grew chemolithoautotrophically under an atmosphere of H2 and CO2 (80:20) in the(More)