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Extremely thermophilic archaebacteria are known to be metabolizers of elemental sulfur and the methanogens. A novel group of extremely thermophilic archaebacteria is described, which consists of sulfate-respiring organisms that contain pure factor 420 and that have been isolated from marine hydrothermal systems in Italy. They possess a third type of(More)
To initiate gene transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) requires the transcription factor IIB (B). Here we present the crystal structure of the complete Pol II-B complex at 4.3 A resolution, and complementary functional data. The results indicate the mechanism of transcription initiation, including the transition to RNA elongation. Promoter DNA is(More)
The active center clefts of RNA polymerase (RNAP) from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) and of yeast RNAP II are nearly identical, including four protruding loops, the lid, rudder, fork 1 and fork 2. Here we present a structure-function analysis of recombinant Pfu RNAP variants lacking these cleft loops, and analyze the function of each loop at(More)
This work describes the identification and characterization of SurR, Pyrococcus furiosus sulphur (S(0)) response regulator. SurR was captured from cell extract using promoter DNA of a hydrogenase operon that is downregulated in the primary response of P. furiosus to S(0), as revealed by DNA microarray experiments. SurR was validated as a sequence-specific(More)
The crystal structure of TrmBL2 from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus shows an association of two pseudosymmetric dimers. The dimers follow the prototypical design of known bacterial repressors with two helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains binding to successive major grooves of the DNA. However, in TrmBL2, the two dimers are arranged at a mutual displacement of(More)
The lower jaws of archaeal RNA polymerase and eukaryotic RNA polymerase II include orthologous subunits H and Rpb5, respectively. The tertiary structure of H is very similar to the structure of the C-terminal domain of Rpb5, and both subunits are proximal to downstream DNA in pre-initiation complexes. Analyses of reconstituted euryarchaeal polymerase(More)
Ribosome-driven protein biosynthesis is comprised of four phases: initiation, elongation, termination and recycling. In bacteria, ribosome recycling requires ribosome recycling factor and elongation factor G, and several structures of bacterial recycling complexes have been determined. In the eukaryotic and archaeal kingdoms, however, recycling involves the(More)
In all living cells, protein synthesis occurs on ribonucleoprotein particles called ribosomes. Molecular models have been reported for complete bacterial 70S and eukaryotic 80S ribosomes; however, only molecular models of large 50S subunits have been reported for archaea. Here, we present a complete molecular model for the Pyrococcus furiosus 70S ribosome(More)
We describe here the establishment of a cell-free transcription system for the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus using the cloned glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene as template. The in vitro system that operated up to a temperature of 85 degrees C initiated transcription 23 bp downstream of a TATA box located 45 bp upstream of the translational(More)
The RNA polymerase of Methanococcus vannielii, in binary complex with two stable RNA operons, protects from exonuclease digestion the region from 32 bp upstream (-32) to 18 bp downstream (+18) of the transcription start site. Contained within this binding region, centered at -25, is an AT-rich sequence which is highly conserved upstream of 26 other(More)