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A novel type of bacterium has been isolated from various geothermally heated locales on the sea floor. The organisms are strictly anaerobic, rod-shaped, fermentative, extremely thermophilic and grow between 55 and 90°C with an optimum of around 80°C. Cells show a unique sheath-like structure and monotrichous flagellation. By 16S rRNA sequencing they clearly(More)
Extremely thermophilic archaebacteria are known to be metabolizers of elemental sulfur and the methanogens. A novel group of extremely thermophilic archaebacteria is described, which consists of sulfate-respiring organisms that contain pure factor 420 and that have been isolated from marine hydrothermal systems in Italy. They possess a third type of(More)
To initiate gene transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) requires the transcription factor IIB (B). Here we present the crystal structure of the complete Pol II-B complex at 4.3 A resolution, and complementary functional data. The results indicate the mechanism of transcription initiation, including the transition to RNA elongation. Promoter DNA is(More)
Archaea have a eukaryotic type of transcriptional machinery containing homologues of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB (TFB) and a pol II type of RNA polymerase, whereas transcriptional regulators identified in archaeal genomes have bacterial counterparts. We describe here a novel regulator of heat shock response, Phr, from the(More)
Protein biosynthesis, the translation of the genetic code into polypeptides, occurs on ribonucleoprotein particles called ribosomes. Although X-ray structures of bacterial ribosomes are available, high-resolution structures of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are lacking. Using cryoelectron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction, we have determined the(More)
A novel thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, VM1T, has been isolated from a marine hydrothermal area of Vulcano Island, Italy. Cells of the strain were gram-negative rods, 2-4 microm long and 1-1.5 microm wide with four to seven monopolarly inserted flagella. Cells grew chemolithoautotrophically under an atmosphere of H2/CO2 (80:20) in the presence(More)
A spore-forming, halophilic bacterium was isolated from surface sediment located on the beach of Palaeochori Bay near to a shallow water hydrothermal vent area, Milos, Greece. The bacterium, designated SH 714T, consisted of motile, strictly aerobic rods which contained an Orn-D-Glu type murein and a G+C content of 35 mol%. Thin sections showed a cell wall(More)
An angular plate-shaped weakly motile mesophilic methanogen was isolated from a swamp of drilling waste in Italy. Growth occurs on H2/CO2 or on formate. Acetate is required in addition. The optimal doubling time is 7 h at 40° C. The cell envelope is composed most likely of glycoprotein subunits in hexagonal arrangement. The GC-content of its DNA is 47.5(More)
  • M Thomm
  • 1996
Archaeal RNA polymerases show a weak ability in vitro to bind to promoter DNA and/or to initiate transcription with low activity independent of upstream regulatory DNA sequences. Active transcription in vitro and in vivo, however, depends strictly on a TATA box resembling the TATA box of eucaryal polII promoters. This TATA box is recognized by a polypeptide(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii encodes two putative transcription regulators, Ptr1 and Ptr2, that are members of the Lrp/AsnC family of bacterial transcription regulators. In contrast, this archaeon's RNA polymerase and core transcription factors are of eukaryotic type. Using the M. jannaschii high-temperature in vitro transcription(More)