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To initiate gene transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) requires the transcription factor IIB (B). Here we present the crystal structure of the complete Pol II-B complex at 4.3 A resolution, and complementary functional data. The results indicate the mechanism of transcription initiation, including the transition to RNA elongation. Promoter DNA is(More)
Protein biosynthesis, the translation of the genetic code into polypeptides, occurs on ribonucleoprotein particles called ribosomes. Although X-ray structures of bacterial ribosomes are available, high-resolution structures of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are lacking. Using cryoelectron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction, we have determined the(More)
A spore-forming, halophilic bacterium was isolated from surface sediment located on the beach of Palaeochori Bay near to a shallow water hydrothermal vent area, Milos, Greece. The bacterium, designated SH 714T, consisted of motile, strictly aerobic rods which contained an Orn-D-Glu type murein and a G+C content of 35 mol%. Thin sections showed a cell wall(More)
Protein synthesis in all living organisms occurs on ribonucleoprotein particles, called ribosomes. Despite the universality of this process, eukaryotic ribosomes are significantly larger in size than their bacterial counterparts due in part to the presence of 80 r proteins rather than 54 in bacteria. Using cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of a(More)
Extremely thermophilic archaebacteria are known to be metabolizers of elemental sulfur and the methanogens. A novel group of extremely thermophilic archaebacteria is described, which consists of sulfate-respiring organisms that contain pure factor 420 and that have been isolated from marine hydrothermal systems in Italy. They possess a third type of(More)
Pyrococcus furiosus is a model organism for analyses of molecular biology and biochemistry of archaea, but so far no useful genetic tools for this species have been described. We report here a genetic transformation system for P. furiosus based on the shuttle vector system pYS2 from Pyrococcus abyssi. In the redesigned vector, the pyrE gene from Sulfolobus(More)
A novel thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Hydrogenophilus hirschii Yel5aT (= DSM 11420T = JCM 10831T) has been isolated from the Angel Terrace Spring, Yellowstone National Park. The isolate was rod-shaped (1.0-1.5 x 0.8 microm) with a polarly inserted flagellum. Cells grew chemolithoautotrophically under an atmosphere of H2 and CO2 (80:20) in the(More)
The uncultured miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group (MCG) archaea comprise one of the most abundant microbial groups in the Earth's subsurface environment. However, very little information is available regarding the lifestyle, physiology, and factors controlling the distribution of members of this group. We established a novel method using both cultivation(More)
Archaea have a eukaryotic type of transcriptional machinery containing homologues of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB (TFB) and a pol II type of RNA polymerase, whereas transcriptional regulators identified in archaeal genomes have bacterial counterparts. We describe here a novel regulator of heat shock response, Phr, from the(More)
The hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii encodes two putative transcription regulators, Ptr1 and Ptr2, that are members of the Lrp/AsnC family of bacterial transcription regulators. In contrast, this archaeon's RNA polymerase and core transcription factors are of eukaryotic type. Using the M. jannaschii high-temperature in vitro transcription(More)