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New computer programs, SurfRace and FastSurf, perform fast calculations of the solvent accessible and molecular (solvent excluded) surface areas of macromolecules. Program SurfRace also calculates the areas of cavities inaccessible from the outside. We introduce the definition of average curvature of molecular surface and calculate average molecular surface(More)
Thermodynamic studies have demonstrated the central importance of a large negative heat capacity change (delta C degree assoc) in site-specific protein-DNA recognition. Dissection of the large negative delta C degree assoc and the entropy change of protein-ligand and protein-DNA complexation provide a thermodynamic signature identifying processes in which(More)
The sigma 70 subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase is required for sequence-specific recognition of promoter DNA. Genetic studies and sequence analysis have indicated that sigma 70 contains two specific DNA-binding domains that recognize the two conserved portions of the prokaryotic promoter. However, intact sigma 70 does not bind to DNA. Using C-terminal and(More)
Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) footprinting in the absence and presence of magnesium (Mg2+) at the lambda PR promoter identified two different open complexes with Escherichia coli E sigma 70 RNA polymerase (designated RPo1 and RPo2). The single-stranded region in RPo1 (formed in the absence of Mg2+) was at most 12 bases long, whereas that in RPo2 (formed in(More)
We have investigated the effects of mixed Na+: Mg2+ ionic solutions on the stability of the nonspecific lac repressor-DNA complex. The effects of Mg2+ are simply interpreted in terms of its role as a competitor (with repressor) for DNA sites. From these studies, the binding constant of the Mg-DNA complex can be determined as a function of the concentration(More)
Results presented here demonstrate that the thermodynamics of oligocation binding to polymeric and oligomeric DNA are not equivalent because of long-range electrostatic effects. At physiological cation concentrations (0.1-0.3 M) the binding of an oligolysine octacation KWK6-NH2 (+8 charge) to single-stranded poly(dT) is much stronger per site and(More)
We have investigated the nonspecific interactions of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core and holoenzyme with double-stranded (ds) and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Binding constants for these interactions as functions of such solution variables as monovalent and/or divalent cation concentration, temperature, or pH were determined by the method of deHaseth et(More)
We describe the application of DNA-cellulose chromatography to the determination of binding constants for the nonspecific interaction between proteins and DNA. The method involves loading a small DNA-cellulose column to a low binding density and subsequently eluting the protein with buffer at a constant salt concentration. The elution is conveniently(More)