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Ym1 and Fizz1 are secreted proteins that have been identified in a variety of Th2-mediated inflammatory settings. We originally found Ym1 and Fizz1 as highly expressed macrophage genes in a Brugia malayi infection model. Here, we show that their expression is a generalized feature of nematode infection and that they are induced at the site of infection with(More)
Allergic diseases mediated by T helper type (Th) 2 cell immune responses are rising dramatically in most developed countries. Exaggerated Th2 cell reactivity could result, for example, from diminished exposure to Th1 cell-inducing microbial infections. Epidemiological studies, however, indicate that Th2 cell-stimulating helminth parasites may also(More)
Human filarial parasites cause chronic infection associated with long-term down-regulation of the host's immune response. We show here that CD4+ T cell regulation is the main determinant of parasite survival. In a laboratory model of infection, using Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice, parasites establish for >60 days in the thoracic cavity. During(More)
Two main strategies for turning exist, the step and spin turns. A three-dimensional analytical comparison between these strategies has not been reported in the literature. Establishing differences between the two strategies is important if providing gait-training advice to clinical populations. The study is the first to compare 90 degrees spin and step(More)
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are key immune regulators during helminth infections, and identifying the mechanisms governing their induction is of principal importance for the design of treatments for helminth infections, allergies and autoimmunity. Little is yet known regarding the co-stimulatory environment that favours the development of Foxp3(+)(More)
Regulatory T cell responses to infectious organisms influence not only immunity and immunopathology, but also responses to bystander antigens. Mice infected with the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus show an early Th2-dominated immune response (days 7-14), but by day 28 a strongly regulatory profile is evident with(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) and functional results of 42 patients undergoing primary (60%) and 23 patients undergoing redo (40%) transthoracic paraesophageal hernia repairs. All patients had a floppy Nissen or Belsey anti-reflux repair with or without a Collis gastroplasty. Morbidity occurred in 12% of patients and was(More)
Periods of cardiac ischemia followed by reperfusion can lead to either transient loss of function (stunning) or permanent functional loss stemming from infarction, depending upon the length of the ischemic period. In either case the primary mediator of the injury may by oxygen-derived free radicals generated upon the reestablishment of blood flow. The(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term survival after R0 resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is less than 50%. The majority of mortality after resection is related to tumor recurrence. The purpose of this study was to identify independent perioperative and pathologic variables that are associated with NSCLC recurrence after complete surgical resection. METHODS(More)
Human helminth infections are synonymous with impaired immune responsiveness indicating suppression of host immunity. Using a permissive murine model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of inbred mice, we demonstrate rapid recruitment and increased in vivo proliferation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells upon exposure to infective L3 larvae. Within(More)