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Our previous studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat showed that the intrinsic antinociceptive effects of oxycodone are naloxone reversible in a manner analogous to morphine but that in contrast to morphine, oxycodone's antinociceptive effects have a rapid onset of maximum effect (approximately 5-7 min compared to 30-45 min for morphine), comprise one(More)
In the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat, a species commonly used to study tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine, approximately 10% of the morphine dose is metabolized to normorphine-3-glucuronide (NM3G). In contrast, NM3G is a relatively minor metabolite of morphine in human urine reportedly accounting for approximately 1% of the morphine dose.(More)
Early treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) at high doses improves neurologic recovery from experimental spinal injury in cats. We have now compared the effects of TRH dose and time of treatment on neurologic outcome. TRH-treated animals showed better motor recovery than saline controls; effects were dose-related (between 0.02 mg/kg/hr and 2.0(More)
The potent, centrally active, calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, was utilized in a highly predictive "spinal stroke" model in order to investigate the potential pathophysiological effects of calcium flux in spinal injury, as well as to evaluate the potential therapeutic role of the newly developed dihydropyridine derivatives in ischemic central nervous(More)
Although morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) has been shown to be analgesically active, the relative involvement of spinal and supraspinal structures in mediating M6G's pain-relieving effects following central and systemic administration to rats is unclear. As the tail flick and hotplate latency tests are reported to quantify antinociception mediated primarily by(More)
In this study, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), the major plasma and urinary metabolite of morphine, was shown to be a potent antagonist of morphine analgesia when administered to rats by the intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route. The antagonism of morphine analgesia was observed irrespective of whether i.c.v. M3G (2.5 or 3.0 micrograms) was administered 15(More)
Antinociceptive tolerance to morphine (MOR) was induced in groups of Sprague-Dawley rats receiving continuous intravenous infusions of morphine sulphate administered by 3 different MOR dosing regimes. At appropriate intervals throughout each infusion period, antinociceptive testing was performed using the tail-flick latency test and blood samples were(More)
Administration of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) by the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route in doses of 2-8 micrograms produced a marked dose-dependent behavioural excitation in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. When LY274614 (1-50 ng i.c.v.) or midazolam maleate (25-50 micrograms i.c.v.) was administered 20 min prior to a maximal excitatory dose of M3G (7(More)
Morphine in high doses and its major metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, cause CNS excitation following intrathecal and intracerebroventricular administration by an unknown mechanism. This study investigated whether morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide interact at major excitatory (glutamate), major inhibitory (GABA or glycine), or opioid binding sites.(More)
The antinociceptive activity of noroxycodone (NOR) was determined and its potency compared with that of oxycodone (OXY) and morphine (MOR) after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. The antinociceptive potencies of OXY and NOR relative to MOR were 0.44 and 0.17, respectively. Administration of naloxone (55 nmol icv) abolished(More)