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Patulin is known to become analytically non-detectable during the production of cider from contaminated apple juice. The fate of [14C]-labelled patulin during the alcoholic fermentation of apple juice was studied. Three commercial cider strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae degraded patulin during active fermentative growth, but not when growing aerobically.(More)
The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the efficacy of azithromycin-rifampin, clarithromycin-rifampin, and erythromycin-rifampin for the treatment of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. Eighty-one foals with naturally acquired pneumonia caused by R. equi were included in the study. Information on age, sex, breed, physical(More)
The type of immune response required to protect mice against clinical disease during acute Neospora caninum challenge was investigated in BALB/c mice. Groups of female BALB/c mice were infected i.p. with N. caninum tachyzoites concomitant with either: (1) antibody to interferon-gamma; (2) recombinant murine interleukin-12; or (3) recombinant murine(More)
Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, causes abortion, stillbirths, and congenital neurologic disease in multiple animal species. The present study focuses on the development of encephalitis and intracerebral parasite load that occurs 6 wk postinfection (PI). Utilizing BALB/c, C57BL/6, and B10.D2 mice, an initial(More)
We used a severe challenge model that produces clinical West Nile virus (WNV) disease to test the efficacy of three commercially available equine WNV vaccines in horses. Twenty-four healthy, WNV-seronegative horses of varying ages and genders were placed, in random and blind manner, into three trial groups consisting of eight horses each; two horses in each(More)
We present a rapid and non-photolithographic approach to microfluidic pattern generation by leveraging the inherent shrinkage properties of biaxially oriented polystyrene thermoplastic sheets. This novel approach yields channels deep enough for mammalian cell assays, with demonstrated heights up to 80 microm. Moreover, we can consistently and easily achieve(More)
The suitability of mice as a model for reproductive loss due to Neospora caninum infection was investigated. Groups of mice were infected with 2 x 10(6) N. caninum before pregnancy (10 days) and during pregnancy (days 5 and 10 of gestation). In mice infected before and during early pregnancy, fetal loss was evaluated throughout gestation, and pregnancy loss(More)
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY West Nile virus (WNF) is a Flavivirus responsible for a life-threatening neurological disease in man and horses. Development of improved vaccines against Flavivirus infections is therefore important. OBJECTIVES To establish that a single immunogenicity dose of live Flavivirus chimera (WN-FV) vaccine protects horses from the(More)
IL-4 levels were modulated in mice to test the hypothesis that induction of a maternal type 1 response would decrease the frequency of congenital Neospora caninum transmission. This hypothesis tested the relationship between IL-4 and both innate and adaptive immunity utilizing two basic experimental designs. In the first, maternal IL-4 was neutralized with(More)
West Nile virus, first identified within the United States in 1999, has since spread across the continental states and infected birds, humans and domestic animals, resulting in numerous deaths. Previous studies in mice identified the Oas1b gene, a member of the OAS/RNASEL innate immune system, as a determining factor for resistance to West Nile virus (WNV)(More)