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The origins and terminations of entorhinal cortical projections in the rat were analyzed in detail with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected in different portions of olfactory, medial frontal (infralimbic and prelimbic areas), lateral frontal (motor area), temporal (auditory), parietal (somatosensory),(More)
Nineteen Macaca fascicularis monkeys were divided into four different groups: Group A (n = 3), control; Group B (n = 3), monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP); Group C (n = 8), animals treated with MPTP in which the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was unilaterally lesioned by kainic acid injection; in Group D (n = 5), the STN(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cell loss confined mostly to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Several factors, including oxidative stress, and decreased activity of complex I mitochondrial respiratory chain, are involved in the degenerative process. Yet, the underlying mechanisms leading to(More)
To through light on the mechanisms underlying the stimulation and persistence of glial cell activation in Parkinsonism, we investigate the function of IFN-γ and TNF-α in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease and analyze their relation with local glial cell activation. It was found that IFN-γ and TNF-α remained higher over the years in the serum and CNS(More)
To examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation and chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment on functional activity of the basal ganglia, we analyzed, using in situ hybridization, the cellular expression of the mRNA encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI mRNA), a molecular marker for functional neuronal activity, in the basal ganglia. This(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and, in the most severe cases, by degeneration of mesopontine cholinergic neurons. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine we report that, despite a severe loss of dopaminergic neurons, in the mesopontine(More)
AIMS Mice and nonhuman primates administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) represent elective experimental models of Parkinsonism, in which degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with prominent neuroinflammation, characterized by activated microglia and astrocytes in both substantia nigra (SN) and(More)
The question has been raised as to whether neuromelanin, a by-product of catecholamine metabolism which accumulates during aging in primate midbrain neurons, contributes to the selective vulnerability of subgroups of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) a metabolite of 1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(More)
To examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation and L-dopa treatment on the basal ganglia output system, we analyzed, by quantitative in situ hybridization, the messenger RNA coding for glutamic acid decarboxylase (Mr 67,000) (GAD67 mRNA) in pallidal cells from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), monkeys rendered parkinsonian by(More)
We analyzed postmortem GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia of three patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and four matched controls by means of glutamic acid decarboxylase (M(r) 67,000 [GAD67]) mRNA in situ hybridization. In PSP, we found a 50 to 60% decrease in the number of neurons expressing GAD67 mRNA in the caudate nucleus, ventral(More)