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AIMS Mice and nonhuman primates administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) represent elective experimental models of Parkinsonism, in which degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with prominent neuroinflammation, characterized by activated microglia and astrocytes in both substantia nigra (SN) and(More)
The degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease is believed to be associated with a glial reaction and inflammatory changes. In turn, local factors may induce changes in vascularization and contribute to neuronal vulnerability. Among these factors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is released in adults under pathological(More)
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