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The origins and terminations of entorhinal cortical projections in the rat were analyzed in detail with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected in different portions of olfactory, medial frontal (infralimbic and prelimbic areas), lateral frontal (motor area), temporal (auditory), parietal (somatosensory),(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cell loss confined mostly to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Several factors, including oxidative stress, and decreased activity of complex I mitochondrial respiratory chain, are involved in the degenerative process. Yet, the underlying mechanisms leading to(More)
Nineteen Macaca fascicularis monkeys were divided into four different groups: Group A (n = 3), control; Group B (n = 3), monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP); Group C (n = 8), animals treated with MPTP in which the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was unilaterally lesioned by kainic acid injection; in Group D (n = 5), the STN(More)
To examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation and chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment on functional activity of the basal ganglia, we analyzed, using in situ hybridization, the cellular expression of the mRNA encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI mRNA), a molecular marker for functional neuronal activity, in the basal ganglia. This(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and, in the most severe cases, by degeneration of mesopontine cholinergic neurons. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine we report that, despite a severe loss of dopaminergic neurons, in the mesopontine(More)
To through light on the mechanisms underlying the stimulation and persistence of glial cell activation in Parkinsonism, we investigate the function of IFN-γ and TNF-α in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease and analyze their relation with local glial cell activation. It was found that IFN-γ and TNF-α remained higher over the years in the serum and CNS(More)
AIMS Mice and nonhuman primates administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) represent elective experimental models of Parkinsonism, in which degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with prominent neuroinflammation, characterized by activated microglia and astrocytes in both substantia nigra (SN) and(More)
In the late 1980s, a functional and anatomical model of basal ganglia organization was proposed in order to explain the clinical syndrome of Parkinson's disease. According to this model, the pathological overactivity observed in the subthalamic nucleus and the output station of the basal ganglia plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the motor signs(More)
Hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) projections to the globus pallidus medialis (GPM) has been established as a crucial feature of parkinsonism in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent experiments blocking the STN glutamatergic output to GPM or lesioning the STN support this concept by showing a dramatic reversal of parkinsonism. We(More)
The question has been raised as to whether neuromelanin, a by-product of catecholamine metabolism which accumulates during aging in primate midbrain neurons, contributes to the selective vulnerability of subgroups of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) a metabolite of 1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(More)