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The origins and terminations of entorhinal cortical projections in the rat were analyzed in detail with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected in different portions of olfactory, medial frontal (infralimbic and prelimbic areas), lateral frontal (motor area), temporal (auditory), parietal (somatosensory),(More)
To examine the consequences of nigrostriatal denervation and chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) treatment on functional activity of the basal ganglia, we analyzed, using in situ hybridization, the cellular expression of the mRNA encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI mRNA), a molecular marker for functional neuronal activity, in the basal ganglia. This(More)
AIMS Mice and nonhuman primates administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) represent elective experimental models of Parkinsonism, in which degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with prominent neuroinflammation, characterized by activated microglia and astrocytes in both substantia nigra (SN) and(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and, in the most severe cases, by degeneration of mesopontine cholinergic neurons. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine we report that, despite a severe loss of dopaminergic neurons, in the mesopontine(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cell loss confined mostly to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Several factors, including oxidative stress, and decreased activity of complex I mitochondrial respiratory chain, are involved in the degenerative process. Yet, the underlying mechanisms leading to(More)
To through light on the mechanisms underlying the stimulation and persistence of glial cell activation in Parkinsonism, we investigate the function of IFN-γ and TNF-α in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease and analyze their relation with local glial cell activation. It was found that IFN-γ and TNF-α remained higher over the years in the serum and CNS(More)
The question has been raised as to whether neuromelanin, a by-product of catecholamine metabolism which accumulates during aging in primate midbrain neurons, contributes to the selective vulnerability of subgroups of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) a metabolite of 1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(More)
We analyzed postmortem GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia of three patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and four matched controls by means of glutamic acid decarboxylase (M(r) 67,000 [GAD67]) mRNA in situ hybridization. In PSP, we found a 50 to 60% decrease in the number of neurons expressing GAD67 mRNA in the caudate nucleus, ventral(More)
Contradictory results have been reported on the downregulation and role of the brain-specific protein metallothionein-III (MT-III, GIF) in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this article, the importance of MT-III downregulation in AD brain was re-evaluated in temporal and frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of 11 AD patients and two groups of five and six(More)
We analyzed the effect of two different schedules of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment on dopaminergic systems in the striatum of cynomolgus monkeys. Acute MPTP treatment produced a marked dopamine (DA) depletion, more severe in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen. Chronic MPTP induced a more pronounced reduction in DA(More)