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Multidrug resistance blaCMY-2 plasmids that confer resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins have been found in multiple bacterial species collected from different hosts worldwide. The widespread distribution of blaCMY-2 plasmids may be driven by antibiotic use that selects for the dissemination and persistence of these plasmids. Alternatively, these(More)
We determined if antibiotics residues that are excreted from treated animals can contribute to persistence of resistant bacteria in agricultural environments. Administration of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin, resulted in a ∼ 3 log increase in ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli found in the faeces and pen soils by day 10 (P = 0.005). This(More)
The World Health Organization has identified quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, and macrolides as the most important antibiotics in human medicine. In the context of agricultural use of antibiotics, the principle zoonotic agents of concern are , spp., , and spp. Antibiotic exposure provides a selective advantage to resistant strains of(More)
It is generally assumed that antibiotic residues in soils select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This assumption was tested by separately adding 10 different antibiotics (≥200 ppm) to three soil-water slurries (silt-loam, sand-loam, and sand; 20% soil [wt/vol]) and incubating mixtures for 24 h at room temperature. The antibiotic activity of the resultant(More)
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently issued new rules for using ceftiofur in food animals in part because of an increasing prevalence of enteric bacteria that are resistant to 3(rd)-generation cephalosporins. Parenteral ceftiofur treatment, however, has limited effects on enteric bacteria so we tested the hypothesis that excreted ceftiofur(More)
When we consider factors that contribute to the emergence, amplification, and persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, the conventional assumption is that antibiotic use is the primary driver in these processes and that selection occurs primarily in the patient or animal. Evidence suggests that this may not always be the case. Experimental trials show(More)
Multinomial distribution, widely used in applications with discrete data, witnessed varieties of competing intervals from frequentist to Bayesian methods, still prove to be interesting in the case of zero counts or sparse contingency tables. The methods commonly recommended in both approaches are considered based on its influence of zero counts, polarizing(More)
This paper examines whether the health administration can use lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) for identifying high prevalence areas for leprosy for initiating necessary corrective measures. The null hypothesis was that leprosy prevalence in the district was at or above ten per 10,000 and the alternative hypothesis was that it was at or below five per(More)
The aim of this study was to identify the replicon types of plasmids, conjugation efficiencies, and the complement of antibiotic resistance genes for a panel of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates from surface waters in northern Tanzania. Standard membrane filtration was used to isolate and uidA PCR was used to confirm the identity of strains as E. coli.(More)
Cervico-vaginal smears from 350 IUCD users were analysed to ascertain the range of abnormalities induced in the genital tract of these women. Alteration of the microbial environment, inflammatory, degenerative, reparative and proplastic epithelial changes were the salient cytological findings. The clinical implications of these are briefly discussed.