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We study gender differences in altruism by examining a modiied dictator game with varying incomes and prices. Our results indicate that the question " which is the fair sex? " has a complicated answer—when altruism is expensive, women are kinder, but when it is cheap, men are more altruistic. That is, we nd that the male and female " demand curves for(More)
Waitresses completed an on-line survey about their physical characteristics, self-perceived attractiveness and sexiness, and average tips. The waitresses' self-rated physical attractiveness increased with their breast sizes and decreased with their ages, waist-to-hip ratios, and body sizes. Similar effects were observed on self-rated sexiness, with the(More)
Using survey data, we identify a variety of factors that influence tipping behavior and in the process lay out a simple theoretical framework to help to interpret our empirical observations. We first investigate the efficiency of observed tipping behavior. While there are elements of efficiency— notably, percent tip depends on service quality—it does not(More)
An important question about social norms is whether they are created to increase welfare; I address it by examining the characteristics of tipped and non-tipped occupations. Tipping prevalence is negatively correlated with worker's income and consumer's monitoring ability and positively with consumer's income and closeness between the worker and the(More)
Federal, state, and local laws in the U.S. specify the minimum wages to be paid in their jurisdictions. Recent years have seen an increased interest among many in raising those minimum wages, and there has been some movement at the local, state, and federal levels to do so. 1 Proposals to increase the minimum wages have been opposed by the restaurant(More)