M. Stanley Whittingham

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In the previous paper Ralph Brodd and Martin Winter described the different kinds of batteries and fuel cells. In this paper I will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior. The lithium battery(More)
Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF(2): M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the(More)
A wide range of manganese oxides is under study for possible use as the cathode of high energy density batteries. The spinel, LiMno0a, although the most studied has a relatively low energy density and appears unstable under charge. This review emphasizes non-spinel oxides, in particular those with layered or tunnel structures that offer enhanced behavior in(More)
The layered oxides of vanadium and molybdenum have been studied for close to 40 years as possible cathode materials for lithium batteries or electrochromic systems. The highly distorted metal octahedra naturally lead to the formation of a wide range of layer structures, which can intercalate lithium levels exceeding 300 Ah/kg. They have found continuing(More)
Vanadium oxide nanostructures have potential uses for electrochemistry and catalysis, yet little is known about their toxicology. In this study, cultured human colon carcinoma cells (Caco-2) were exposed to vanadium oxide and their viability assessed with the neutral red assay. Cells exposed to either vanadium oxide (powdered form) or ethylene diamine(More)
Substituted lithium transition-metal (TM) phosphate LiFe(x)Mn(1-x)PO(4) materials with olivine-type structures are among the most promising next generation lithium ion battery cathodes. However, a complete atomic-level description of the structure of such phases is not yet available. Here, a combined experimental and theoretical approach to the detailed(More)
Two new iron(III) phosphates, FePO(4), have been synthesized from the dehydration of hydrothermally prepared monoclinic and orthorhombic hydrated phosphates FePO(4).2H(2)O. The structures of both hydrates were redetermined from single crystal data. On dehydration, a topotactic reaction takes place with only those bonds associated with the water molecules(More)