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The increasing use of tissue dosimetry estimated using pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessments in various jurisdictions necessitates the development of internationally recognized good modelling practice (GMP). These practices would facilitate sharing of models and model evaluations and consistent applications in risk assessments. Clear(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for investigating inter-individual and inter-racial variability in ethanol pharmacokinetics is presented. The model is a substantial modification of an existing model which described some genetic polymorphisms in the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes. The model was modified to incorporate a description of(More)
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are used in mode-of-action based risk and safety assessments to estimate internal dosimetry in animals and humans. When used in risk assessment, these models can provide a basis for extrapolating between species, doses, and exposure routes or for justifying nondefault values for uncertainty factors.(More)
This is the report of the 63rd of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM’s main objective, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are relevant to the biosciences and which reduce,(More)
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the disposition of 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) was developed in order to predict the urinary concentration of its major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid (BAA) under a range of exposure scenarios. Based on Corley et al. [Corley, R.A., Bormett, G.A., Ghanayem, B.I., 1994. Physiologically based(More)
There are numerous programs ongoing to analyze environmental exposure of humans to xenobiotic chemicals via biomonitoring measurements (e.g.: EU ESBIO, COPHES; US CDC NHANES; Canadian Health Measures Survey). The goal of these projects is to determine relative trends in exposure to chemicals, across time and subpopulations. Due to the lack of data, there is(More)
Long term exposure of skylarks to a fictitious insecticide and of wood mice to a fictitious fungicide were modelled probabilistically in a Monte Carlo simulation. Within the same simulation the consequences of exposure to pesticides on reproductive success were modelled using the toxicity-exposure-linking rules developed by R.S. Bennet et al. (2005) and the(More)
In the European Union, first-tier assessment of the long-term risk to birds and mammals from pesticides is based on calculation of a deterministic long-term toxicity/exposure ratio (TER(lt)). The ratio is developed from generic herbivores and insectivores and applied to all species. This paper describes two case studies that implement proposed improvements(More)
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