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Many of the signaling responses induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are mediated by Smad proteins, but there is evidence that it can also signal independently of Smads. Here, we provide evidence that multiple signal pathways induced by TGF-β1—including Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), de novo(More)
The ciliated protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia contains two protein kinase activities (CaPK-1 and CaPK-2) that are dependent on Ca2+ (Gundersen, R. E., and Nelson, D. L. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 4602-4609). We purified Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase-1 (CaPK-1) 1,000-fold from the EGTA-extracted soluble fractions of Paramecium. The purified enzyme was a(More)
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