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The continuous infusion of low doses of naloxone has been reported to decrease postoperative opioid requirements and opioid side effects. However, there is no study that evaluates the effectiveness of the combination of a low dose of naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This prospective, randomized double-blind controlled study(More)
To determine separately the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on analgesia and on inflammation, rats were assigned to receive CRH 60 microg/kg, CRH 300 microg/kg, morphine 4 mg/kg, or normal saline intravenously 15 min before a burn injury. Two mesh chambers that allowed collection of fluid had been previously implanted subdermally in each(More)
UNLABELLED Sex differences in pain perception and in response to opioids have been described, but the findings are inconsistent. We sought to determine the effect of sex on pain perception, morphine consumption, and morphine analgesia after surgery. We designed a prospective cohort study and included 423 women and 277 men who emerged from general anesthesia(More)
Despite widespread use of the 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) of pain intensity, relatively little is known about the meaning of decreases in pain intensity assessed by means of this scale to patients. We aimed to establish the meaning to patients of declines in pain intensity and percent pain reduction. Upon arrival to the postanesthesia care unit,(More)
Ultralow doses of naloxone (0.001-0.1 microg/kg) produce analgesia in animal models. However, no clinical study has evaluated the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This randomized, double blind controlled study sought to determine if the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine in PCA(More)
A novel bivalent opioid tetrapeptide, biphalin (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH)2, was synthesized based on structure-activity relationships. The analgesic activity of biphalin was assessed in comparison to morphine in rats. Drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.), intravenously (i.v.) and intrathecally (i.t.). Tail flick and tail pinch were used as tests for(More)
Recent animal models of experimental nerve injury have proven useful in evaluating potential sympathetic involvement in neuropathic pain syndromes. We have employed a widely adopted unilateral L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation model to compare the development of mechanical allodynia with neurochemical changes both at the site of peripheral nerve injury and in the(More)
The use of percentage pain reduction is increasingly used to evaluate the effectiveness of pain treatments, but the degree of agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction (CPPR) as calculated from pre- and post-treatment levels of pain intensity and those reported directly by patients is unknown. Lack of agreement between these two measures could(More)
Matching is used to control for imbalances between groups, but the preferable strategy for matching is not always clear. We sought to compare two algorithms-optimal matching with a fixed number of controls (OMFC), and optimal matching with a variable number of controls (OMVC). We compared the degree of bias reduction and relative precision using Monte Carlo(More)
To assess within a single rat strain individual variability of analgesic responses to sub-ED50 doses of receptor-selective opioids, we measured: 1) tail flick latency (TFL) responses after intrathecal (ith) injection of delta, mu, and kappa agonists administered serially; 2) TFL and tail pinch latencies (TPch) after intravenous (iv) mu and kappa agonists;(More)