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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES This investigation was undertaken to compare analgesic effects, side effects, and requirements for supplemental analgesic therapy after knee arthroscopy in patients given intra-articular (IA) or subcutaneous (SC) morphine, intra-articular bupivacaine, or placebo. METHODS In a randomized, double-blind controlled trial, 112(More)
Despite widespread use of the 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) of pain intensity, relatively little is known about the meaning of decreases in pain intensity assessed by means of this scale to patients. We aimed to establish the meaning to patients of declines in pain intensity and percent pain reduction. Upon arrival to the postanesthesia care unit,(More)
OBJECTIVE There is growing controversy on the value of blocking the sympathetic nervous system for the treatment of complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). The authors sought to evaluate the efficacy of sympathetic blockade with local anesthetic in these syndromes. In addition, they performed a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology and other(More)
BACKGROUND Tramadol is increasingly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis because, in contrast to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), tramadol does not produce gastrointestinal bleeding or renal problems, and does not affect articular cartilage. OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the analgesic effectiveness, the effect on physical function,(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of music for the treatment of pain has not been established. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of music on acute, chronic or cancer pain intensity, pain relief, and analgesic requirements. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and the references in retrieved manuscripts. There was no(More)
Ultralow doses of naloxone (0.001-0.1 microg/kg) produce analgesia in animal models. However, no clinical study has evaluated the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This randomized, double blind controlled study sought to determine if the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine in PCA(More)
The continuous infusion of low doses of naloxone has been reported to decrease postoperative opioid requirements and opioid side effects. However, there is no study that evaluates the effectiveness of the combination of a low dose of naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This prospective, randomized double-blind controlled study(More)
UNLABELLED Sex differences in pain perception and in response to opioids have been described, but the findings are inconsistent. We sought to determine the effect of sex on pain perception, morphine consumption, and morphine analgesia after surgery. We designed a prospective cohort study and included 423 women and 277 men who emerged from general anesthesia(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to evaluate ethnic differences in response to morphine and to determine whether any detectable differences were pharmacokinetically based. METHODS This cohort study was carried out in a teaching hospital. Sixty-six young, healthy male subjects from 3 ethnic groups (Caucasians, native Indians, and Latinos; n = 22 in each group)(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To measure the incidence of nausea and vomiting in outpatients in relation to selection of, or withholding of, intraoperative opioid. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, double-blind control trial. SETTING University general hospital. PATIENTS 200 unpremedicated ASA status 1 and 11 patients, 8 to 80 years old, undergoing general anesthesia(More)