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The organisation of the mammary epithelial hierarchy is poorly understood. Our hypothesis is that the luminal cell compartment is more complex than initially described, and that an understanding of the developmental relationships within this lineage will help in understanding the cellular context in which breast tumours occur. We used fluorescence-activated(More)
Evidence is emerging that the mouse mammary epithelium is arranged as a hierarchy that spans from stem cells to lineage-restricted progenitor cells to differentiated luminal and myoepithelial cells. The use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) in combination with quantitative functional clonal assays represents a powerful tool for studying the(More)
Heterogeneity within the self-renewal durability of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) challenges our understanding of the molecular framework underlying HSC function. Gene expression studies have been hampered by the presence of multiple HSC subtypes and contaminating non-HSCs in bulk HSC populations. To gain deeper insight into the gene expression(More)
Lineage tracing using inducible genetic labeling has emerged to be a powerful method for interrogating the developmental fate of cells in intact tissues. A common induction mechanism is the use of tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase (CreER and CreERT2), but the effects of tamoxifen at doses normally used in lineage-tracing studies on normal adult mammary(More)
BACKGROUND Altered DNA repair may be associated with aggressive tumour biology and impact upon response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated whether expression of human AP endonuclease (APE1), a key multifunctional protein involved in DNA BER, would impact on clinicopathological outcomes in ovarian, gastro-oesophageal, and pancreatico-biliary(More)
Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt actin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal(More)
BACKGROUND Loss of HLA class I is important in ovarian cancer prognosis but its role as a prognostic indicator in relation to therapy remains unproven. We studied the prognostic potential of this antigen and its significance in relation to platinum therapy. METHODS A total of 157 primary ovarian cancers were assessed for HLA class I immunohistochemically(More)
BACKGROUND The MAL2 gene, encoding a four-transmembrane protein of the MAL family, is amplified and overexpressed in breast and other cancers, yet the significance of this is unknown. MAL-like proteins have trafficking functions, but their molecular roles are largely obscure, partly due to a lack of known binding partners. METHODS Yeast two-hybrid(More)
BACKGROUND this study aimed to identify predictors of response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy (5-fluoro-uracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide (FEC)) in locally advanced primary breast cancer (LAPC). METHODS a total of 91 LAPC patients were treated with six cycles of FEC before surgery. Protein expression of nine biomarkers (topoisomerase2α (Topo2α),(More)
Phenol has been traditionally used in dental treatment as a sedative for the pulp or as disinfectant for carious cavity and root canal. However, phenol is regarded as a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent and its use in dental practice is now therefore restricted. Monochlorophenols are derivatives of phenol, which are still used clinically as root canal(More)