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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is responsible for the hospitalization of >250 000 Americans annually and represents a significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Despite the publication of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to aid in the management of VTE in its acute and chronic forms, the clinician is frequently confronted with manifestations of(More)
Solid tumors, including the aggressive primary brain cancer glioblastoma multiforme, develop resistance to cell death, in part as a result of a switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytoplasmic glycolysis. This metabolic remodeling is accompanied by mitochondrial hyperpolarization. We tested whether the small-molecule and orphan drug(More)
BACKGROUND The cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was investigated in humans and fawn hooded rats (FHR), a spontaneously pulmonary hypertensive strain. METHODS AND RESULTS Serial Doppler echocardiograms and cardiac catheterizations were performed in FHR and FHR/BN1, a consomic control that is genetically identical except for introgression of(More)
BACKGROUND Alveolar hypoxia acutely elicits pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Chronic hypoxia (CH), despite attenuating HPV, causes pulmonary hypertension (CH-PHT). HPV results, in part, from inhibition of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). CH decreases Kv channel current/expression and(More)
The pulmonary arteries (PA) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are constricted and remodeled;. They have suppressed apoptosis, partly attributable to suppression of the bone morphogenetic protein axis and selective downregulation of PA smooth muscle cell (PASMC) voltage-gated K+ channels, including Kv1.5. The Kv downregulation-induced increase in(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CH-PHT) is associated with suppressed expression and function of voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv) in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a shift in cellular redox balance toward a reduced state. We hypothesized that dichloroacetate (DCA), a metabolic modulator that can shift redox balance(More)
Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is initiated by inhibition of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated (Kv) channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Kv inhibition depolarizes membrane potential (E(M)), thereby activating Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. HPV is weak in extrapulmonary, conduit pulmonary arteries (PA) and strong in(More)
Most solid tumors are characterized by a metabolic shift from glucose oxidation to glycolysis, in part due to actively suppressed mitochondrial function, a state that favors resistance to apoptosis. Suppressed mitochondrial function may also contribute to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and angiogenesis. We have previously shown that(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is caused by excessive proliferation of vascular cells, which occlude the lumen of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and lead to right ventricular failure. The cause of the vascular remodeling in PAH remains unknown, and the prognosis of PAH remains poor. Abnormal mitochondria in PAH PA smooth muscle cells (SMCs) suppress(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by genetic and acquired abnormalities that suppress apoptosis and enhance cell proliferation in the vascular wall, including downregulation of the bone morphogenetic protein axis and voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels. Survivin is an "inhibitor of apoptosis" protein, previously thought to be expressed(More)