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At the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the prion protein (PrP) can be synthesized in several topological forms. The role of these different forms was explored with transgenic mice expressing PrP mutations that alter the relative ratios of the topological forms. Expression of a particular transmembrane form (termed CtmPrP) produced neurodegenerative changes(More)
Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing both Syrian hamster (Ha) and mouse (Mo) prion protein (PrP) genes were used to probe the mechanism of scrapie prion replication. Four Tg lines expressing HaPrP exhibited distinct incubation times ranging from 48 to 277 days, which correlated inversely with HaPrP mRNA and HaPrPC. Bioassays of Tg brain extracts showed that the(More)
Three transgenic mouse lines designated Tg 69, 71, and 81 were produced harboring a Syrian hamster (Ha) prion protein (PrP) gene; all expressed the cellular HaPrP isoform in their brains. Inoculation of Tg 81 mice or hamsters with Ha prions caused scrapie in integral of 75 days; nontransgenic control mice failed to develop scrapie after greater than 500(More)
There is increasing concern over the extent to which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions have been transmitted to humans, as a result of the rising number of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) cases. Toward preventing new transmissions, diagnostic tests for prions in livestock have been developed using the conformation-dependent immunoassay(More)
Transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human (Hu) and chimeric prion protein (PrP) genes were inoculated with brain extracts from humans with inherited or sporadic prion disease to investigate the mechanism by which PrPC is transformed into PrPSc. Although Tg(HuPrP) mice expressed high levels of HuPrPC, they were resistant to human prions. They became susceptible(More)
Transgenic mice expressing chimeric prion protein (PrP) genes derived from Syrian hamster (SHa) and mouse (Mo) PrP genes were constructed. One SHa/MoPrP gene, designated MH2M PrP, contains five amino acid substitutions encoded by SHaPrP, while another construct, designated MHM2 PrP, has two substitutions. Transgenic (Tg) (MH2M PrP) mice were susceptible to(More)
Two lines of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing high (H) levels of the mutant P101L prion protein (PrP) developed a neurologic illness and central nervous system pathology indistinguishable from experimental murine scrapie; these mice were designated Tg(MoPrP-P101L)H. Brain homogenates from Tg(MoPrP-P101L)H mice were inoculated intracerebrally into CD-1 Swiss(More)
The efficient expression of exogenous prion protein (PrP) molecules in mouse neuroblastoma cells that are chronically infected with murine scrapie prions (ScN2a cells; Butler, D.A., et al., 1988, J. Virol. 62, 1558-1564) and in transgenic mice is described. This technology allows investigation of the PrP molecule for structural regions involved in(More)
Studies of prion biology and diseases have elucidated several new concepts, but none was more heretical than the proposal that the biological properties that distinguish different prion strains are enciphered in the disease-causing prion protein (PrP(Sc)). To explore this postulate, we examined the properties of PrP(Sc) from eight prion isolates that(More)
Glucose control and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment. Currently, only glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs are able to achieve both weight loss and glucose tolerance. Both glucose and body weight are regulated by the brain, which contains GLP1 receptors (GLP1R). Even though the brain is poised to mediate the effects of GLP1(More)