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GLU is the main neurotransmitter in the brain, where it induces a synaptic excitatory action. There is recent evidence for an extracellular nonsynaptic GLU (EnS-GLU) pool in different brain nuclei that, released from glial cells, may act on extrasynaptic GLU receptors of cells located far from the position in which it was released. In the present work, the(More)
It has been suggested that motor imagery (MI) has the basic components of real motion. This possibility was tested here in 17 healthy volunteers studied while performing or imaging a fast sequence of finger movements of progressive complexity, a fast and precise extension of the arm to touch a small circle with the tip of a pencil, a periodic repetitive(More)
OBJECTIVE The Mu-rhythm has been proposed as both an inhibitor ("idling hypothesis") and as a promoter ("processing hypothesis") of information processing in the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM-C). We tested these possibilities by analyzing the phase-locked and non-phase-locked Mu response during the execution of a visual-motor task. METHODS EEG was(More)
Although there are some mechanisms which allow the direct crossing of substances between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells (gap junctions), most substances use the extracellular space to diffuse between brain cells. The present work reviews the behavior and functions of extracellular glutamate (GLU). There are two extracellular pools of glutamate (GLU) in the(More)
An extracellular nonsynaptic taurine pool of glial origin was recently reported in the substantia nigra (SN). There is previous evidence showing taurine as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the SN, but the physiological role of this nonsynaptic pool of taurine has not been explored. By using microdialysis methods, we studied the action of local osmolarity(More)
An over-stimulation of nigral glutamate (GLU) receptors has been proposed as a cause of the progression of the dopamine (DA) cell degeneration (excitotoxicity) which characterizes Parkinson's disease. The possible toxic action of striatal GLU (retrograde excitotoxicity) on these cells, and on other neurons which innervate the striatum and which also(More)
It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also(More)
Motor imagery (MI) is a key tool for studying the cognitive functions of movement. These studies assume that movements and their MI (virtual movements) involve the same cognitive functions. The real-virtual isochrony and isometry of movements of different complexity and accuracy, and the kinematics of real and virtual movements (real-virtual spatial(More)
Motor imagery is a mental representation of motor behavior which has been widely used to study the cognitive basis of movement. The assumption that real movements and motor imagery (virtual movements) use the same neurobiological basis has been questioned by functional magnetic resonance data. The functional similarity in the planning of real and virtual(More)