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Phototrophic chromalveolates possess plastids surrounded by either 3 or 4 membranes, revealing their secondary endosymbiotic origin from an engulfed eukaryotic alga. In cryptophytes, a member of the chromalveolates, the organelle is embedded within a designated region of the host's rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Its eukaryotic compartments other than(More)
BACKGROUND Plastids rely on protein supply by their host cells. In plastids surrounded by two membranes (primary plastids) targeting of these proteins is facilitated by an N-terminal targeting signal, the transit peptide. In secondary plastids (surrounded by three or four membranes), transit peptide-like regions are an essential part of a bipartite(More)
Proteins of the Omp85 family are conserved in all kingdoms of life. They mediate protein transport across or protein insertion into membranes and reside in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Omp85 proteins contain a C-terminal transmembrane beta-barrel and a soluble N terminus with a varying number of(More)
The plastids of cryptophytes, haptophytes, and heterokontophytes (stramenopiles) (together once known as chromists) are surrounded by four membranes, reflecting the origin of these plastids through secondary endosymbiosis. They share this trait with apicomplexans, which are alveolates, the plastids of which have been suggested to stem from the same(More)
Organelles are surrounded by membranes with a distinct lipid and protein composition. While it is well established that lipids affect protein functioning and vice versa, it has been only recently suggested that elevated membrane protein concentrations may affect the shape and organization of membranes. We therefore analyzed the effects of high chloroplast(More)
High-throughput protein localization studies require multiple strategies. Mass spectrometric analysis of defined cellular fractions is one of the complementary approaches to a diverse array of cell biological methods. In recent years, the protein content of different cellular (sub-)compartments was approached. Despite of all the efforts made, the analysis(More)
Proteins of the Omp85 family are involved in the insertion of β-barrel shaped outer membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria, and—at least—in the transfer of preproteins across the chloroplast outer envelope. In general these proteins consist of up to five N-terminal “polypeptide transport associated” (POTRA) domains and a C-terminal, membrane(More)
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