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Phototrophic chromalveolates possess plastids surrounded by either 3 or 4 membranes, revealing their secondary endosymbiotic origin from an engulfed eukaryotic alga. In cryptophytes, a member of the chromalveolates, the organelle is embedded within a designated region of the host's rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Its eukaryotic compartments other than(More)
The complex plastid of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum can both be traced back to an engulfed eukaryotic red alga. The eukaryotic origin of these plastids is most obvious in cryptophytes, where the organelle still possesses a remnant nucleus, the nucleomorph. The nucleomorph itself is embedded in the periplastid(More)
Many apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum, harbor a so-called apicoplast, a complex plastid of red algal origin which was gained by a secondary endosymbiotic event. The exact molecular mechanisms directing the transport of nuclear-encoded proteins to the apicoplast of P. falciparum are not well understood. Recently, in silico analyses(More)
Plastids rely on protein supply by their host cells. In plastids surrounded by two membranes (primary plastids) targeting of these proteins is facilitated by an N-terminal targeting signal, the transit peptide. In secondary plastids (surrounded by three or four membranes), transit peptide-like regions are an essential part of a bipartite topogenic signal(More)
Proteins of the Omp85 family are conserved in all kingdoms of life. They mediate protein transport across or protein insertion into membranes and reside in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Omp85 proteins contain a C-terminal transmembrane beta-barrel and a soluble N terminus with a varying number of(More)
The import of cytosolically synthesized precursor proteins into chloroplasts by the translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC) is crucial for organelle function. The recognition of precursor proteins at the chloroplast surface precedes translocation and involves the membrane-inserted receptor subunits Toc34 and Toc159. A third receptor,(More)
GTPases act as molecular switches to control many cellular processes, including signalling, protein translation and targeting. Switch activity can be regulated by external effector proteins or intrinsic properties, such as dimerization. The recognition and translocation of pre-proteins into chloroplasts [via the TOC/TIC (translocator at the outer envelope(More)
The cryptophyte Guillardia theta harbors a plastid surrounded by four membranes. This turns protein targeting of nucleus-encoded endosymbiont localized proteins into quite a challenge, as the respective precursors have to pass either all four membranes to reach the plastid stroma or only the outermost two membranes to enter the periplastidal compartment.(More)
The plastids of cryptophytes, haptophytes, and heterokontophytes (stramenopiles) (together once known as chromists) are surrounded by four membranes, reflecting the origin of these plastids through secondary endosymbiosis. They share this trait with apicomplexans, which are alveolates, the plastids of which have been suggested to stem from the same(More)
The majority of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from gram-negative bacteria and many of mitochondria and chloroplasts are β-barrels. Insertion and assembly of these proteins are catalyzed by the Omp85 protein family in a seemingly conserved process. All members of this family exhibit a characteristic N-terminal polypeptide-transport-associated (POTRA) and a(More)