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BACKGROUND Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression has been suggested as a potential predictive biomarker of response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of PD-L1 in tumour cells is affected by neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or chemotherapy in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PATIENTS(More)
It is still unclear whether the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by mobile phone radiation is directly linked to cancer. We examined the biological effects of an EMF at 835 MHz, the most widely used communication frequency band in Korean CDMA mobile phone networks, on bacterial reverse mutation (Ames assay) and DNA stability (in vitro DNA(More)
Prolonged circulation by liposomal incorporation has been shown to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in many cases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prolonged circulation of methotrexate (MTX) can be achieved by modulating the liposomal compositions. Various compositions of liposomes were prepared with 2:1 of(More)
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