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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socioeconomic problem that affects all societies. In recent years, patterns of injury have been changing, with more injuries, particularly contusions, occurring in older patients. Blast injuries have been identified as a novel entity with specific characteristics. Traditional approaches to the(More)
The heterogeneity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most significant barriers to finding effective therapeutic interventions. In October, 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, with support from the Brain Injury Association of America, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, and the National Institute(More)
BACKGROUND Activated microglia may play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) as they cluster around beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques. They are, therefore, a potential therapeutic target in both AD and its prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). OBJECTIVE To characterize in vivo with (11)C-(R)-PK11195 and (11)C-PIB PET the(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem, and there is a great medical need for a pharmacological treatment that could improve long-term outcome. The excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, has been implicated in processes leading to neurodegeneration. Traxoprodil (CP-101,606) is a novel and potent glutamate receptor antagonist(More)
Experimental investigations of single mild brain injury (SMI) show relatively little resultant cognitive impairment. However, repeated mild brain injuries (RMI), as those sustained by athletes (e.g., football, hockey, and soccer players) may have cumulative effects on cognitive performance and neuropathology. Numerous clinical studies show persistent,(More)
Rapid triage and decision-making in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) present challenging dilemma in "resource poor" environments such as the battlefield and developing areas of the world. There is an urgent need for additional tools to guide treatment of TBI. The aim of this review is to establish the possible use of diagnostic TBI biomarkers(More)
INDICATIONS FOR SURGERY An acute subdural hematoma (SDH) with a thickness greater than 10 mm or a midline shift greater than 5 mm on computed tomographic (CT) scan should be surgically evacuated, regardless of the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. All patients with acute SDH in coma (GCS score less than 9) should undergo intracranial pressure (ICP)(More)
Intracranial haemorrhage was produced in the caudate nucleus or the lateral ventricle of Sprague Dawley Rats by connecting a stereotactically inserted cannula to the femoral artery. Two types of lesion resulted from this type of arterial-pressure haemorrhage: Contained intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and Uncontained haemorrhage. When the haemorrhage was(More)
CONTINUOUS OXYGEN DELIVERY and CO(2) clearance are paramount in the maintenance of normal brain function and tissue integrity. Under normal conditions, aerobic metabolism is the major source of energy in the brain, but this system may be compromised by the interruption of substrate delivery and disturbances in cerebral metabolism. These disruptions are(More)