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In response to years of intense selection pressure by organophosphate insecticides, several different insecticide resistance mechanisms have evolved in natural populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens. We examined interactions between two of the most important mechanisms using a four-compartment model of insecticide pharmacokinetics. The joint effect of(More)
The di¡erent strategies of insecticide resistance management that have been formulated so far consist of delaying the appearance and spread of resistance genes. In this paper, we propose a strategy that can be used even if resistance genes are already present. This strategy consists of applying insecticides in an area smaller than a certain critical size,(More)
Introduction Water-based cooling lubricant emulsions, lacquer baths and cooling circuits can be heavily contaminated by microorganisms leading to massive loss in product quality. A new quantitative ATP-metry (adenosine Triphosphate) test was used in industrial metalworking fluids, baths and cooling circuits to quantify microbial proliferation and improve(More)
Ecotypic differentiation is well described in the mosquito Culex pipiens, separating populations breeding in subterranean and human-made sites (hypogeous habitat) from those in open-air sites (epigeous habitat). The pattern of population differentiation observed at the Aat-1 locus has been suspected to be associated with such ecotypic differentiation via(More)
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