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Previous reports about the nucleotide receptor P2X(7), which exhibits ion channel and pore-forming activity and is known to promote IL-1beta processing, have centered largely on its role in macrophage function, whereas its participation in monocyte activity has been unclear. However, because extracellular ATP has been shown to affect monocytes with respect(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) are known to mediate viral control, and also promote survival and expansion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. However, it is unclear whether signaling cascades involved in eliciting these diverse cellular effects are also distinct. One of the best-characterized anti-viral signaling mechanisms of Type I IFNs is mediated by the(More)
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent outbreaks at local or global scale with potentially severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Recently, a new strain of influenza A virus was detected that causes disease in and transmits among humans, probably owing to little or no pre-existing immunity to the new strain. On 11 June 2009 the World(More)
We examined the regulation of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice. Our study shows that within the same persistently infected host, different mechanisms can operate to silence antiviral T cell responses; CD8 T cells specific to one dominant viral epitope were deleted, whereas CD8 T(More)
The 'Spanish' influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was the most devastating outbreak of infectious disease in recorded history. At least 20 million people died from their illness, which was characterized by an unusually severe and rapid clinical course. The complete sequencing of several genes of the 1918 influenza virus has made it possible to study the functions(More)
The clonal expansion, differentiation into effectors and establishing an immunological memory are crucial components of the adaptive immune response. Following the initial encounter with a pathogen, clonal CD8 T cell expansion yields at least two distinct populations of effector cells, short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor effector cells(More)
T-cell recruitment into the brain is critical in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases of the CNS. We use intracerebral antigen microinjection and tetramer technology to track antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells in the CNS and to clarify the contribution of antigen deposition or traumatic injury to the accumulation of T-cells in the brain. We demonstrate that,(More)
CD8 T cell responses have three phases: expansion, contraction, and memory. Dynamic alterations in proliferation and apoptotic rates control CD8 T cell numbers at each phase, which in turn dictate the magnitude of CD8 T cell memory. Identification of signaling pathways that control CD8 T cell memory is incomplete. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway controls(More)
The turkey interferon (TkIFN) gene encodes a signal peptide and a mature protein of 30 and 162 amino acids, respectively. TkIFN mRNA expression was induced by reoviral double-stranded RNA in fibroblasts. The recombinant TkIFN protein possessed species-specific antiviral activity and in synergy with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced bone marrow macrophages to(More)
Since the first recorded infection of humans with H5N1 viruses of avian origin in 1997, sporadic human infections continue to occur with a staggering mortality rate of >60%. Although sustained human-to-human transmission has not occurred yet, there is a growing concern that these H5N1 viruses might acquire this trait and raise the specter of a pandemic.(More)