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Calmodulin (CaM) influences many cellular processes by interacting with various proteins. Here, we isolated AtBAG6, an Arabidopsis CaM-binding protein that contains a central BCL-2-associated athanogene (BAG) domain. In yeast and plants, overexpression of AtBAG6 induced cell death phenotypes consistent with programmed cell death (PCD). Recombinant AtBAG6(More)
The glutamate-induced excitotoxicity pathway has been reported in several neurodegenerative diseases. Molecules that inhibit the release of glutamate or cause the overactivation of glutamate receptors can minimize neuronal cell death in these diseases. Osmotin, a homolog of mammalian adiponectin, is a plant protein from Nicotiana tabacum that was examined(More)
Dopamine via interaction with its receptor is known to be involved in the behavioral and endocrine actions in the mammalian brain. Behavioral effects produced by ethanol appear to be due to its actions on the dopaminergic system. In the present study using in situ hybridization histochemistry and RNase protection assay, the effect of prolonged ethanol(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, we found that Staphylococcus aureus produces extracellular vesicles (EV) that contain pathogenic proteins. Although S. aureus infection has been linked with atopic dermatitis (AD), the identities of the causative agents from S. aureus are controversial. We evaluated whether S. aureus-derived EV are causally related to the pathogenesis(More)
GABA(B) receptors (R) are widely expressed and distributed in the nervous system, and have been implicated in variety of neurodegenerative and pathophysiological disorders. However, the exact molecular mechanism regarding responsibility of GABA(B1)R in downstream signaling pathway is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to explore the(More)
Inflammatory cytokines and enzymes such as IL-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia, a condition associated with infection of the CNS cells by the HIV-1. In this report, we investigated the expression of iNOS, IL-1, and caspase-1 (interleukin-1 converting enzyme) in HIV-1 encephalitis(More)
To observe the modulatory role of GABA(B1)R upon ethanol's effect during early brain development, we studied the effects of chronic maternal (10% ethanol during pregnancy) and acute (in vitro) ethanol exposure on the neuronal protein kinase A (PKA-α) and phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB), using a system where GABA(B1)R were(More)
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a neurological and developmental disorder caused by exposure of developing brain to ethanol. Administration of osmotin to rat pups reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Osmotin, a plant protein, mitigated the ethanol-induced increases in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP-1. Osmotin and(More)
Prenatal ethanol exposure has various deleterious effects on neuronal development and can induce various defects in developing brain, resulting in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA(B)) receptor (R) is known to play an important role during the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Our study was designed to investigate(More)
The antemortem diagnosis of Balo's concentric sclerosis was made in a 52 year old woman with subacute right hemiparesis on the basis of brain MRI and stereotactic brain biopsy, which showed multiple ring-like lesions of lamellated demyelination alternating with spared white matter. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was carried out one and nine(More)