M . R . J . Williams

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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Approximately 80% of the maize genome comprises highly repetitive sequences interspersed with single-copy, gene-rich sequences, and standard genome sequencing strategies are not readily adaptable to this type of genome. Methodologies that enrich for genic sequences might more rapidly generate useful results from complex genomes. Equivalent numbers of clones(More)
Neuronal intranuclear inclusions are found in the brains of patients with Huntington's disease and form from the polyglutamine-expanded N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin. To explore the properties of inclusions and their involvement in cell death, mouse clonal striatal cells were transiently transfected with truncated and full-length human wild-type(More)
Elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2k) phosphorylates and inactivates eEF2. Insulin induces dephosphorylation of eEF2 and inactivation of eEF2 kinase, and these effects are blocked by rapamycin, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR. However, the signalling mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Regulation of eEF2 phosphorylation and(More)
In addition to its key role in cellular metabolism where it acts as a ubiquitous enzyme cofactor and as the key source of the cellular energy unique to phosphate bond formation, the purine nucleotide ATP (Fig. 1) also functions as a potent extracellular messenger producing its effects via the activation of a family of distinct cell surface receptors, the P2(More)
Characterization of the adenosine A2 receptor has been limited due to the lack of available ligands which have high affinity and selectivity for this adenosine receptor subtype. In the present study, the binding of a highly A2-selective agonist radioligand, [3H]CGS 21680 (2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) is described.(More)
Development of analgesic agents for the treatment of severe pain requires the identification of compounds that are devoid of opioid receptor liabilities. A potent (inhibition constant = 37 picomolar) neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand called ABT-594 was developed that has antinociceptive properties equal in efficacy to those of(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory muscle training has been shown to improve both its strength and endurance. The effect of these improvements on whole-body exercise performance remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of a 10 week inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) intervention on respiratory muscle performance and whole-body exercise endurance. (More)
The regional distribution of adenosine A2 receptors in the rat brain was determined using the A2-selective agonist ligand [3H](2-p-carboxyethyl)phenylamino)-5'-N-carboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) by quantitative receptor autoradiography. [3H]CGS 21680 binding was highly localized in the striatal region of the rat brain with the greatest density of binding(More)