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In this review, we discuss current structural and functional imaging data on ADHD in a neurological and neuroanatomical framework. At present, the literature on adult ADHD is somewhat sparse, and so results from imaging have to therefore be considered mainly from the childhood or adolescence perspective. Most work has considered the impairment of executive(More)
We report on the development of a German self-rating behaviour questionnaire (ADHD-SR) and diagnostic checklist (ADHD-DC) for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults according to DSM IV and ICD 10 research criteria. When comparing self-rating with expert rating, we found good concordance measured by intraclass coefficients on the(More)
CONTEXT Human personality is characterized by substantial heritability but few functional gene variants have been identified. Although rodent data suggest that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) modifies diverse behaviors including aggression, this has not been translated to human studies. OBJECTIVES To investigate the functionality of(More)
Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the(More)
In a total of 10 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer-type (DAT) and in 10 healthy controls near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a new non-invasive optical method, was used to measure the changes of concentrations of oxy- (O2HB) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHB) in left and right hemispheric prefrontal brain tissue areas during performance of the Verbal Fluency(More)
Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, environmental conditions play an important role in its manifestation during childhood development. Here, we report the results of an investigation on the interaction of adverse childhood environment with a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter promoter gene(More)
The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional(More)
OBJECTIVES This trial was performed to test the efficacy and safety of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (MPH ER). METHODS A total of 162 adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV were treated for 8 weeks with either two daily individually body weight-adjusted doses of MPH ER up to 1 mg/kg per day (N = 84) or placebo (N = 78). The primary(More)
OBJECTIVES Treatment investigations with methylphenidate in adults with ADHD focus preferentially on the classical psychopathology: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD-associated emotional symptoms, which are frequently present at least in ADHD subpopulations, were studied rarely. The vast majority of the placebo-controlled trials had(More)
Ascertaining the diagnosis of ADHD in adults according to DSM-IV requires determination of the presence of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity during both childhood and adulthood. Developmental changes of psychopathology, age-related comorbidity and functional and psychosocial problems associated with ADHD have to be taken into account(More)