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Because of their similarities, serotonin 5-HT2, 5-HT1C, and the recently described 5-HT2F receptors have been classified as members of the 5-HT2 receptor family, and they have been renamed 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT2B, respectively. The regional distribution and cellular localization of mRNA coding for the members of 5-HT2 receptor family were investigated in(More)
Several transcription factors are expressed at higher levels in the waking than in the sleeping brain. In experiments with rats, the locus coeruleus, a noradrenergic nucleus with diffuse projections, was found to regulate such expression. In brain regions depleted of noradrenergic innervation, amounts of c-Fos and nerve growth factor-induced A after waking(More)
32P-labelled oligonucleotides complementary to rat 5-HT2 receptor mRNA were used as probes to study the distribution of cells in rat brain containing the mRNA coding for this receptor by in situ hybridization histochemistry. 5-HT2 receptor binding sites were visualized by autoradiography using [125I]DOI as ligand. Both distributions were comparable,(More)
In order to localize the cells expressing 5-HT1A receptors in the rat brain, we used in situ hybridization histochemistry to visualize the distribution of the mRNA coding for 5-HT1A receptors. Oligonucleotides derived from different parts of the coding region of the rat 5-HT1A receptor gene were used as hybridization probes. 5-HT1A binding sites were(More)
The molecular mechanisms involved in sleep regulation and function are largely unknown, and our understanding of the localization of such mechanisms within specific brain structures is still incomplete. In this work, we explored the consequences of sleep deprivation by the immunocytochemical mapping of the induction of the protein product of the immediate(More)
Caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/apopain), a mammalian homolog of the Caenorhabditis elegans pro-cell death gene ced-3, is required for normal programmed cell death (PCD) in the nematode. Its prior deletion by homologous recombination in mice resulted in embryonic/early postnatal lethality associated with dramatic central nervous system (CNS) hyperplasia, yet a(More)
The expression of the immediate early gene c-fos has been studied in the entire brain of rats 3, 6 and 24 h after surgical unilateral labyrinthectomy. We combined in situ hybridization for c-fos messenger RNA with immunocytochemistry for Fos protein to document very early changes in c-fos expression and to identify with cellular resolution neuronal(More)
The effects of total sleep deprivation (SD) on the expression of the immediate-early gene NGFI-A were studied in the rat brain by in situ hybridization. Rats were manually sleep-deprived for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h starting at light onset (08:00 h) and for 12 h starting at dark onset (20:00 h). SD performed during the day induced a marked increase in NGFI-A mRNA(More)
During space flight astronauts show vestibular-related changes in balance, eye movements, and spontaneous and reflex control of cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal function, sometimes associated with space motion sickness. These symptoms undergo compensation over time. Here we used changes in the expression of two immediate-early gene (IEG)(More)
We have recently demonstrated that c-fos expression is strongly induced by both spontaneous and forced wakefulness in many brain regions. c-Fos expression was considerably increased in regions involved in the regulation of arousal states, such as the locus coeruleus (noradrenergic neurons) and the medial preoptic area (non-GABAergic neurons). With c-fos(More)