M. Penn

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The Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem (GTSP) is stated as follows. Given a weighted complete digraph K * n and a partition V1,. .. , V k of its vertices, find a minimum weight cycle containing exactly one vertex from each set Vi, i = 1,. .. , k. We study transformations from GTSP to TSP. The 'exact' Noon-Bean transformation is investigated in(More)
I present a theory of assimilation in a heterogeneous society composed of two groups with distinct social norms and unequal statuses. Members of the group with a relatively disadvantaged status face an incentive to assimilate, embracing the norms of the more advantaged group. The cost of assimilation is endogenous and strategically chosen by the advantaged(More)
The site survey for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope concluded recently after more than two years of data gathering and analysis. Six locations, including lake, island and continental sites, were thoroughly probed for image quality and sky brightness. The present paper describes the analysis methodology employed to determine the height stratification(More)
For hundreds of years, humans have observed that the Sun has displayed activity where the number of sunspots increases and then decreases at approximately 11-year intervals. Sunspots are dark regions on the solar disk with magnetic fi eld strengths greater than 1500 gauss (see Figure 1), and the 11-year sunspot cycle is actually a 22-year cycle in the solar(More)
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