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Infection of human cells with poliovirus induces the proliferation of double-membraned cytoplasmic vesicles whose surfaces are used as the sites of viral RNA replication and whose origin is unknown. Here, we show that several hallmarks of cellular autophagosomes can be identified in poliovirus-induced vesicles, including colocalization of LAMP1 and LC3, the(More)
Viral infection converts the normal functions of a cell to optimize viral replication and virion production. One striking observation of this conversion is the reconfiguration and reorganization of cellular actin, affecting every stage of the viral life cycle, from entry through assembly to egress. The extent and degree of cytoskeletal reorganization varies(More)
Intracellular bacteria and viruses must survive the vigorous antimicrobial responses of their hosts to replicate successfully. The cellular process of autophagy — in which compartments bound by double membranes engulf portions of the cytosol and then mature to degrade their cytoplasmic contents — is likely to be one such host-cell response. Several lines of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Iron deficiency and iron overload affect over a billion people worldwide. Dietary iron absorption in the small intestine is required for systemic iron homeostasis. Ferroportin (FPN) is the only characterized, mammalian, basolateral iron exporter. Despite the importance of FPN in maintaining iron homeostasis, its in vivo mechanisms of(More)
UNLABELLED Pseudorabies virus (PRV), an alphaherpesvirus with a broad host range, replicates and spreads in chains of synaptically connected neurons. The PRV protein Us9 is a small membrane protein that is highly conserved among alphaherpesviruses and is essential for anterograde axonal spread in neurons. Specifically, the Us9 protein is required for the(More)
UNLABELLED Oxygen dynamics in the liver is a central signaling mediator controlling hepatic homeostasis, and dysregulation of cellular oxygen is associated with liver injury. Moreover, the transcription factor relaying changes in cellular oxygen levels, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is critical in liver metabolism, and sustained increase in HIF signaling(More)
Cholesterol synthesis is a highly oxygen-dependent process. Paradoxically, hypoxia is correlated with an increase in cellular and systemic cholesterol levels and risk of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism for the increase in cholesterol during hypoxia is unclear. Hypoxia signaling is mediated through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-2α. The(More)
The use of genetically encodable calcium indicator proteins to monitor neuronal activity is hampered by slow response times and a narrow Ca(2+)-sensitive range. Here we identify three performance-limiting features of GCaMP3, a popular genetically encodable calcium indicator protein. First, we find that affinity is regulated by the calmodulin domain's(More)
During infection of the nervous system, alphaherpesviruses-including pseudorabies virus (PRV)-use retrograde axonal transport to travel toward the neuronal cell body and anterograde transport to traffic back to the cell periphery upon reactivation from latency. The PRV protein Us9 plays an essential but unknown role in anterograde viral spread. To determine(More)
Poliovirus infection remodels intracellular membranes, creating a large number of membranous vesicles on which viral RNA replication occurs. Poliovirus-induced vesicles display hallmarks of cellular autophagosomes, including delimiting double membranes surrounding the cytosolic lumen, acquisition of the endosomal marker LAMP-1, and recruitment of the 18-kDa(More)