M. P. Schmitt

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OBJECTIVE To study zidovudine resensitization and dual resistance to zidovudine/lamivudine in HIV-1 isolates from nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-experienced patients during selective pressure exerted by zidovudine/lamivudine combination therapy. DESIGN AND METHODS HIV-1 isolates from 29 patients receiving zidovudine/lamivudine combination(More)
Intravenous drug abusers represent a high risk group for HIV infection in Europe and North America. Although the use of blood-contaminated needles undoubtedly constitutes the main factor of transmission of the virus, an effect of the drug itself either on the immune system or on virus replication, thus favouring the initiation of the infection, may not be(More)
The 3526 base-pair nucleotide sequence from near the end of bacteriophage T3 gene 1 to within the coding sequence of gene 2.5 is given. It includes the complete coding sequences for nine known or presumptive proteins, most of which are only conditionally essential for phage growth. The sequence includes five promoters for the phage RNA polymerase, the(More)
OBJECTIVES We conducted a comparison of the Abbott Molecular RealTime (Rungis, France) and Roche Diagnostics Cobas Taqman (Meylan, France) automated nucleic acid extraction and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification systems for their capacity to quantify HIV RNA of various subtypes. The systems were tested on culture supernatants belonging(More)
Kupffer cells (liver macrophages) represent the largest reservoir of fixed macrophages in the body. Accordingly, we have undertaken a study to evaluate their susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Five-day-old primary cultures of Kupffer cells (KC) were infected with HIV-1, and as the infection progressed, syncytia appeared. Within(More)
In order to select and standardize a reliable assay for the analysis of sensitivity of HIV isolates to AZT, we have compared two culture methods. The first assay (Cell-Associated Isolate Sensitivity Assay: CAISA) quantified AZT-resistant HIV isolates by end-point dilution cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence of various(More)
It has been demonstrated that morphine stimulates the replication of human immunodeficiency virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as in Kupffer cells. Since the mechanism of action of this drug is still unknown, we have studied its effects on different properties of isolated human blood monocytes. In the presence of morphine, cultured(More)
Evidence has accumulated indicating that macrophages could play a role in the physiopathology of AIDS. We recently demonstrated that cultured human liver macrophages, the so-called Kupffer cells (KC), are permissive for HIV. Their infection in vivo would lead these cells to constitute a target for the virus and a reservoir as well. Since they occupy a(More)
In primary cultures of Kupffer cells obtained from surgical biopsies of human liver by collagenase perfusion followed by centrifugal elutriation and infected with HIV, the virus multiplied abundantly, as attested by the appearance of a reverse transcriptase activity in the medium. Examined by electron microscopy, the cells were found to contain viral(More)
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