M. P. S. To

Learn More
Natural visual scenes are rich in information, and any neural system analysing them must piece together the many messages from large arrays of diverse feature detectors. It is known how threshold detection of compound visual stimuli (sinusoidal gratings) is determined by their components' thresholds. We investigate whether similar combination rules apply to(More)
Simple everyday tasks, such as visual search, require a visual system that is sensitive to differences. Here we report how observers perceive changes in natural image stimuli, and what happens if objects change color, position, or identity-i.e., when the external scene changes in a naturalistic manner. We investigated whether a V1-based(More)
Visual Difference Predictor (VDP) models have played a key role in digital image applications such as the development of image quality metrics. However, little attention has been paid to their applicability to peripheral vision. Central (i.e., foveal) vision is extremely sensitive for the contrast detection of simple stimuli such as sinusoidal gratings, but(More)
We are studying how people perceive naturalistic suprathreshold changes in the colour, size, shape or location of items in images of natural scenes, using magnitude estimation ratings to characterise the sizes of the perceived changes in coloured photographs. We have implemented a computational model that tries to explain observers' ratings of these(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after peripheral nerve transection can improve the functional outcome in situations where epineurial repair must be delayed. DESIGN Randomized, blinded, controlled trial. SUBJECTS Thirty-four Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTION Sciatic nerves were transected and, after(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the role of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the regeneration of the mouse sciatic nerve following injury by studying the CNTF knockout mouse in a blinded, randomized and controlled evaluation. STUDY DESIGN Fifty-eight wild-type and 57 CNTF knockout mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: sham surgery(More)
Learned behaviors require coordination of diverse sensory inputs with motivational and motor systems. Although mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds have focused primarily on auditory inputs, it is likely that sensory inputs from vocal effectors also provide essential feedback. We investigated the role of somatosensory and respiratory inputs(More)
The Euclidean and MAX metrics have been widely used to model cue summation psychophysically and computationally. Both rules happen to be special cases of a more general Minkowski summation rule , where m = 2 and ∞, respectively. In vision research, Minkowski summation with power m = 3-4 has been shown to be a superior model of how subthreshold components(More)
1 ABSTRACT Lithium has been used for more than 50 years as a primary therapy for bipolar affective disorder (BPD) and has proven highly effective for both acute and long-term phases of the disease. Unfortunately, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the mood-stabilizing action of lithium for the treatment of BPD remains largely unknown. In an(More)
We investigate whether a computational model of V1 can predict how observers rate perceptual differences between paired movie clips of natural scenes. Observers viewed 198 pairs of movies clips, rating how different the two clips appeared to them on a magnitude scale. Sixty-six of the movie pairs were naturalistic and those remaining were low-pass or(More)