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In previous experiments we implicated projections from the medial geniculate body (MG) to a subcortical field, involving portions of the posterior caudate-putamen and amygdala, in the classical conditioning of emotional responses to acoustic stimuli in the rat. In the present series of experiments we examined whether intrinsic neurons in the subcortical(More)
We sought to isolate and partially purify proteins corresponding to the binding element of the imidazoline receptor (IR) from adrenal chromaffin cell membranes. These cells express IRs of the I-2 subclass and not alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. Proteins were solubilized in 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-containing buffer and were(More)
Intraventricular injection of colchicine in rat results in the appearance within hypothalamus of numerous neurons containing the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, but not the other catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes. Increased PNMT staining in hypothalamus was paralleled by an increase in PNMT activity measured in(More)
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme which synthesizes the inhibitory transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was localized immunocytochemically within cells and processes distributed throughout the ventrolateral medulla. In caudal regions, GAD-stained cells were adjacent to the 'precerebellar' lateral reticular nucleus and partially overlapped(More)
The substrate-promoted inactivation of glutamate decarboxylase from hog brain was studied. Inactivation was a slow process that was dependent on the concentration of glutamate. Glutamate-dependent inactivation was not first order but was best described as the sum of two exponential decay processes. At 10 mM glutamate, the half-lives at 30 degrees C were(More)
The effects of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) on the reactivation of glutamate apodecarboxylase by its cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (pyridoxal-P) was studied. Apoenzyme was prepared by preincubation with glutamate. Apoenzyme prepared with glutamate alone was reactivated slowly and incompletely by adding a saturating concentration of pyridoxal-P (20(More)
Sympathoexcitatory neurons in the C1 adrenergic area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) are tonically inhibited by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To identify the source of this GABAergic input, the distribution of neurons containing glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was determined immunocytochemically in rats treated with colchicine. Numerous(More)
Binding sites labeled by [3H]p-aminoclonidine ([3H]PAC) were characterized in bovine brain membranes prepared from the ventrolateral medulla, the probable site of the antihypertensive action of clonidine and analogs. Comparison was made with [3H]PAC binding to membranes prepared from frontal cortex, which has been studied extensively. Saturation binding(More)
We sought to identify amino acid neurotransmitter candidates within the nucleus of the solitary tract in rats. Twenty endogenous amino acids were quantified by reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection (30-fmol limit). Micropunches (1 mm) of the intermediate area of the solitary nucleus were prepared, and the amino acid content determined. Of all the(More)
Clonidine-displacing substance (CDS) from brain is biologically active in the kidney and stomach and on platelets. To determine whether CDS is contained in these and other peripheral tissues, homogenates of fresh brain, eight other organs and serum from rat were ultrafiltered (less than 10,000 mol. wt only), dried and extracted with methanol. Evaluation by(More)