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Acquisition of the classically conditioned, nictitating membrane response was used to assess effects of LSD on learning. Tone and light conditioned stimuli (CS) were presented 800 msec before delivery of the unconditioned stimulus, consisting of a 100 msec electric shock to the skin over the paraorbital region of the head. Extension of the membrane to the(More)
This study investigated whether regular alpine skiing could reverse sarcopenia and muscle weakness in older individuals. Twenty-two older men and women (67 ± 2 years) underwent 12 weeks of recreational skiing, two to three times a week, each session lasting ∼ 3.5 h. An age-matched, inactive group (n=20, 67 ± 4 years) served as a control (CTRL). Before and(More)
We hypothesized that 12 weeks of downhill skiing mitigates the functional deficits of knee extensor muscles in elderly subjects due to the specific recruitment of fast motor units during forceful turns on the slope. Downhill skiing led to a 1.4-fold increase in the mean cross-sectional area of slow (P=0.04)- and fast (P=0.08)-type muscle fibers. Fold(More)
Strain is one of the parameters determining tendon adaptation to mechanical stimuli. The aim of this study was to test whether the patellar tendon strain induced during recreational alpine skiing would affect tendon mechanical properties in older individuals. Twenty-two older males and females (67 ± 2 years) were assigned to a 12-week guided skiing(More)
Alpine skiing is a recreational sport with high demands on the cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems. It is assumed that skiing could have positive effects on the decline in aerobic capacity, strength, and balance ability of older individuals. In a 12-week intervention study, 47 elderly subjects (age 60-76 years) were randomized into an intervention(More)
The aim of this study was to monitor the long-term effects of skiing on the health-related parameters of older individuals. This paper describes the overall study design and the intervention phase. The study utilized a randomized control group design consisting of an intervention group (n=27; age: 67.5 ± 2.8 years) and a control group (n=20; age: 67.3 ± 4.4(More)
Electrical stimulation of anterior or posterior hypothalamus with 10-s trains elicited heart rate and blood pressure decreases. Presentation of anterior hypothalamic stimulation coincident with or 5, 10, or 15 s prior to 5-s train stimulation of aortic nerve (AN) summated with depressor-decelerator responses to AN stimulation. The summating effect was more(More)
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