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| ountain snowpack in western North America is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, storing water from the winter (when most precipitation falls) and releasing it in spring and early summer , when economic, environmental, and recreational demands for water throughout the West are frequently greatest. In most river basins of the West, especially in(More)
There is increasing consensus in the hydrologic literature that an appropriate framework for streamflow forecasting and simulation should include explicit recognition of forcing, parameter and model structural error. This paper presents a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sam-pler, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM), that is(More)
We present a nonparametric approach based on local polynomial regression for ensemble forecast of time series. The state space is first reconstructed by embedding the univariate time series of the response variable in a space of dimension with a delay time) (D) (τ. To obtain a forecast from a given time point t , three steps are involved: (i) the current(More)
In the present study, we have shown that a downstream element located in the coding region of the TATA-less rat xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) gene (-7 to +42) plays an important role in transcription initiation and C/EBP transcriptional activation. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the promoter is organized with multiple initiator(More)
We previously reported that the TATA-less rat xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) promoter is organized with multiple initiator elements (Inr 1, 2, 3 and 4). Additionally, we identified six factor binding footprints in the upstream region of this promoter (FP 1-FP 6), two of which (FP 2 and FP 4) we showed to be C/EBP binding sites. In this report we(More)
In the present study, we have explored further the organization of the TATA-less rat xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase gene (XDH/XO). A DNase I hypersensitive site has been identified which it colocalizes with the basal promoter reported previously [Chow et al. (1994) Nucleic Acids Res., 22, 1846-1854]. Gel mobility shift assays indicate the presence of(More)
Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale land models (as a component of Earth System Models, or ESMs) do not yet reflect the best(More)