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BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that individuals with autism show impaired performance on tests of executive function (Ozonoff et al. 1991, 1993; Hughes & Russell, 1993; Hughes et al. 1994). There is also strong evidence for genetic involvement in autism (see Rutter, 1991 for review). If executive dysfunction is a core impairment in autism, then(More)
BACKGROUND Conflicting results in genetic studies of bipolar disorders may be due to the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Age at onset of bipolar disorders may be a key indicator for identifying more homogeneous clinical subtypes. We tested whether early onset and late onset bipolar illness represent two different forms of bipolar illness(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate sleep and alertness and to investigate the presence of possible underlying sleep/wake disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD After 3 nights of adaptation in a room reserved for sleep studies in the department of child psychiatry, children underwent polysomnography (PSG) followed by the(More)
Ten nondepressed patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who were characterized by predominant checking rituals were compared with 10 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Hemispheric and regional cerebral blood flow levels (rCBF) were measured with positron emission tomography (H2 15O) across four conditions: rest, auditory stimulation with(More)
DSM-3 obsessive-compulsive out-patients were randomly assigned to fluvoxamine with antiexposure (F), fluvoxamine with exposure (Fe), or placebo with exposure (Pe) for 24 weeks. Of 65 patients offered treatment 60 entered the trial, 50 reached week 8, 44 completed treatment to week 24, and 37 reached follow up to week 48. On average the patient had depressed(More)
BACKGROUND Whole blood serotonin (5-HT) and C-terminally directed beta-endorphin protein immunoreactivity (C-ter-beta-EP-ir) are known to be elevated in autistic subjects and might be possible markers of genetic liability to autism. This study thus investigates the familial aggregation of 5-HT and of C-ter-beta-EP-ir levels in first degree relatives of(More)
Sleep disturbances can lead to symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. In the present study, we compared the sleep patterns of 30 children with ADHD, with those of 19 controls matched for age (5-10 years) and sex. Sleep patterns were recorded during one night, using polysomnography (PSG) and a video system in the sleep(More)
BACKGROUND The study was designed to compare cognitive therapy (CT) with intensive behavior therapy (BT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to study their change process. METHODS Sixty-five outpatients with DSM-4 OCD were randomized into 2 groups for 16 weeks of individual treatment in 3 centers. Group 1 received 20 sessions of CT. Group 2(More)
The effect of month-long naltrexone (NTX) treatment at a daily oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day was contrasted with placebo (PLC) in a double-blind study with conjoint clinical and biochemical evaluations of therapeutic effects. Modest clinical benefits were achieved with both PLC and NTX, with marginally better overall results following NTX, and degree of(More)
Memory processes were compared in 26 patients presenting DSM-III-R obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with 20 sex-, age- and education-matched normal controls. A significant between-group difference was found: visual memory was significantly lower in OCD, whereas no significant between-group differences in verbal memory were observed. A subsample of 17 OCD(More)