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PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 is highly expressed in(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals, oxygen ions, and peroxides, are implicated in cell damage. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the spontaneous production of ROS from neutrophils changes with age and is associated with the conventional inflammatory markers. RESULTS Thirty-seven elderly subjects (median(More)
Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years) participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training.(More)
A shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism has been associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes 1–5. However, whether this metabolic switch is deleterious or adaptive remains controversial 6–8 , in part due to limited understanding of the regulatory network that directs the metabolic and contractile specification of(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of low-dose bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC) supplementation on selected immune variables in cyclists. Twenty-nine highly trained male road cyclists completed an initial 40-km time trial (TT(40)) and were then randomly assigned to either a supplement (n = 14, 10 g bovine CPC/day) or placebo(More)
CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and its ligand, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), are crucial for the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages to sites of inflammation. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the relationship between stress, monocyte CCR2 expression and migration activity. First, we collected peripheral(More)
4-Cyanamido-5-imidazolecarboxamide (IV) was prepared by brief treatment of 5-(S-methylisothiocarbamoyl) amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (V) with alkali. Compound VI was converted in an alkaline solution to either guanine (VII) or isoguanine (VIII), depending on the concentration of alkali. This procedure was applied to the synthesis of(More)
Inosine was prepared (15% yield) by treatment of 5-amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA-riboside) with chloroform in the presence of sodium methoxide. This ring closure can be reasonably explained by assuming the formation of dichlorocarbene from chloroform and alkali. Carbon tetrachloride or hexachloroethane as a carbene source was(More)
A new cycloimidazole nucleoside, 5-(1 inch -benzamido-1 inch-hydroxymethylene) amino-2', 1 inch-anhydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-4-imidazolecarboxamide (III) was synthesized by reaction of 5-amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA-riboside) with benzoyl isothiocyanate followed by methylation with methyl iodide. The structure of III was(More)
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