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Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are abundant in the vertebrate (mammalian) nervous system. Their composition is spatially and developmentally regulated, and gangliosides have been widely believed to lay essential roles in establishment of the nervous system, especially in neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. However, this has never(More)
Glutamate receptors are important in neural plasticity, neural development and neurodegeneration. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors act as glutamate-gated cation channels, whereas metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) modulate the production of second messengers via G proteins.(More)
Stimulation of two metabotropic glutamate-receptor subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5, triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through the inositol-(1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3) pathway. Here we report that glutamate induces single-peaked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in mGluR1alpha-transfected cells but elicits Ca2+ oscillations in(More)
Mitochondria of early Drosophila embryos were observed with a transmission electron microscope and a fluorescent microscope after vital staining with rhodamine 123, which accumulates only in active mitochondria. Rhodamine 123 accumulated particularly in the posterior pole region in early cleavage embryos, whereas the spatial distribution of mitochondria in(More)
We investigated kainate-induced excitotoxicity in embryonic rat hippocampal cells cultured in a chemically defined medium. Treatment with kainate for 24 h resulted in neuronal death, as assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture media. This neurotoxic effect was kainate dose- and culture age-dependent. EC50 of kainate was 127 +/- 11(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1) is thought to play important roles in the neurotransmission and pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Here, we describe the radioligand binding properties and pharmacological effects of a newly synthesized, high-affinity, selective, and noncompetitive mGluR1 antagonist,(More)
The in-vitro pharmacological properties of (2,3-dioxo-7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-quinoxal inyl)-acetic acid monohydrate, YM872, a novel and highly water-soluble alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-receptor antagonist were investigated. YM872 is highly water soluble (83 mg mL(-1) in Britton-Robinson buffer)(More)
As part of our study of novel antagonists at the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) subtype of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors and the pharmacophoric requirements of the receptor, we designed and synthesized a series of 1-substituted 6-imidazolyl-7-nitro-, and 7-imidazolyl-6-nitroquinoxalinediones, as well as related(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid is able to reduce spatial cognitive deficit following transient ischemia in rats. In addition, we investigated whether the chronic treatment of docosahexaenoic acid is able to protect the hippocampal neuronal damage induced by either hypoxia in vitro or(More)
Somatosensory evoked potentials were after double stimuli on the posterior tibial nerve for the intraoperative monitoring in 58 thoracolumbar or lumbar surgeries. The first cortical positive potential P38 and P'38 after the second stimulus was recorded after double stimuli. Transient decreased amplitude more than 50% or missing potential of P'38 was found(More)