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The intracellular protein tyrosine kinase FAK (focal adhesion kinase) was originally identified gy its high level of tyrosine phosphorylation in v-src-transformed cells. FAK is also highly phosphorylated during early development. In cultured cells it is localized to focal adhesion contacts and becomes phosphorylated and activated in response to(More)
This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Central auditory relay synapses in mature animals follow high-frequency inputs for computation of sound localization. In immature mice, however, transmission at the calyx of Held synapse in auditory brainstem was inaccurate for high-frequency inputs because the summed slow synaptic potential components caused aberrant firings or blocked action potentials.(More)
The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in sporadic colorectal tumors, and its product binds to the adherens junction protein beta-catenin. Overexpression of APC blocks cell cycle progression. The APC-beta-catenin complex was shown to bind to DLG, the human homolog of the Drosophila discs large tumor(More)
Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are abundant in the vertebrate (mammalian) nervous system. Their composition is spatially and developmentally regulated, and gangliosides have been widely believed to lay essential roles in establishment of the nervous system, especially in neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. However, this has never(More)
Stimulation of two metabotropic glutamate-receptor subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5, triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through the inositol-(1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP3) pathway. Here we report that glutamate induces single-peaked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in mGluR1alpha-transfected cells but elicits Ca2+ oscillations in(More)
Mitochondrial large ribosomal RNA (mtlrRNA) has been identified as a cytoplasmic factor that induces pole cell formation in embryos whose ability to form a germ line has been abolished by treatment with ultraviolet light. In situ hybridization analyses reveal that mtlrRNA is enriched in germ plasm and is tightly associated with polar granules, the(More)
Glutamate receptors are important in neural plasticity, neural development and neurodegeneration. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors act as glutamate-gated cation channels, whereas metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) modulate the production of second messengers via G proteins.(More)
GABA(A) receptor alpha1 and alpha2 subunits are expressed differentially with ontogenic period in the brain, but their functional roles are not known. We have recorded GABA(A) receptor-mediated IPSCs from laterodorsal (LD) thalamic relay neurons in slices of rat brain at various postnatal ages and found that decay times of evoked IPSCs and spontaneous(More)
Mitochondria of early Drosophila embryos were observed with a transmission electron microscope and a fluorescent microscope after vital staining with rhodamine 123, which accumulates only in active mitochondria. Rhodamine 123 accumulated particularly in the posterior pole region in early cleavage embryos, whereas the spatial distribution of mitochondria in(More)