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Analysis of data from 82 Veterans Affairs medical centers showed that during a one-year period in 1987-88, VA psychiatric inpatients spent about 240,000 hours in seclusion or restraint, with about half of that time in mechanical restraints. The median length of time patients in each medical center spent in seclusion and restraint was used to classify(More)
Coagulation, fibrinolytic, kallikrein, and complement systems were studied in 20 patients with multiple trauma. Three of four patients with a trauma score less than 10 on hospital arrival died, compared to one of 16 with a score over 10. Five patients developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Signs of activated cascade systems were evident in most(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory failure is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a safe, effective intervention for infants with respiratory distress and is widely used in developed countries. Because of its high cost, bCPAP is not widely utilized in low-resource settings. We evaluated(More)
Recent reports have highlighted the need for educational programs to prepare students for careers developing and disseminating new interventions that improve global public health. Because of its multi-disciplinary, design-centered nature, the field of Biomedical Engineering can play an important role in meeting this challenge. This article describes a new(More)
I t takes only 90 minutes to fly from Miami to Port-au-Prince, Haiti, but the cities are a world apart. A baby born in Port-au-Prince is nearly 10 times as likely to die before age 1 as an infant born in Miami. Life expectancy on the island is almost 20 years shorter than in the United States. That such disparities persist despite renewed public and private(More)
Introduction Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. The largest barriers to treating PPH are symptom recognition and timely diagnosis. The SAPHE (Signaling a Postpartum Hemorrhage Emergency) Mat was constructed so that each square on the Mat absorbs up to 50 mL of blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate(More)
Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of global child mortality. In the developing world, nasal oxygen therapy is often the only treatment option for babies who are suffering from respiratory distress. Without the added pressure of bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (bCPAP) which helps maintain alveoli open, babies struggle to breathe(More)
The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we(More)
Anemia affects a quarter of the world's population, and a lack of appropriate diagnostic tools often prevents treatment in low-resource settings. Though the HemoCue 201+ is an appropriate device for diagnosing anemia in low-resource settings, the high cost of disposables ($0.99 per test in Malawi) limits its availability. We investigated using(More)