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The evolution of influenza A virus is linked to a non-fixed evolutionary landscape driven by tight co-evolutionary interactions between hosts and influenza strains. Herd-immunity, cross-immunity and age-structure are among the factors shown to support the coexistence of multiple strain oscillations. In this study, we incorporate two influenza strains and(More)
An increasing number of avian flu cases in humans, arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, in several regions of the world have prompted the urgency to develop pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. Leading recommendations in these plans include basic public health control measures for minimizing transmission in hospitals and communities, the(More)
A pathogen's route to survival involves various mechanisms including its ability to invade (host's susceptibility) and its reproductive success within an invaded host ("infectiousness"). The immunological history of an individual often plays an important role in reducing host susceptibility or it helps the host mount a faster immunological response de facto(More)
It is widely believed that protecting health care facilities against outbreaks of pandemic influenza requires pharmaceutical resources such as antivirals and vaccines. However, early in a pandemic, vaccines will not likely be available and antivirals will probably be of limited supply. The containment of pandemic influenza within acute-care hospitals(More)
We introduce a general framework to study the dynamics of multiple strain pathogens that can impart cross–immunity through a variety of structures. We propose two types of immunity and apply them to assess the dynamics of two competing strains. We illustrate this framework using two " visions " : the next–to–kin protection (NTKP) approach which assumes that(More)
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