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Na/K pump current was determined between -140 and +60 mV as steady-state, strophanthidin-sensitive, whole-cell current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, voltage-clamped and internally dialyzed via wide-tipped pipettes. Solutions were designed to minimize all other components of membrane current. A device for exchanging the solution inside the pipette(More)
Astrocyte differentiation, which occurs late in brain development, is largely dependent on the activation of a transcription factor, STAT3. We show that astrocytes, as judged by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, never emerge from neuroepithelial cells on embryonic day (E) 11.5 even when STAT3 is activated, in contrast to E14.5(More)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity (e.g., alkylphenols) have been detected in coastal Japan. We aimed to determine estrogenic activity in extracts of river water, seawater, sediments, and sediment cores from Tokyo Bay by in vitro gene expression assay. Fifty-one of 57 extracts had some estrogenic activity. E2 equivalents (ng E2(More)
We analyzed mRNA expression of the flt3 gene in 30 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 50 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), expression of flt3 was observed in 61 patients; 22 (73%) with AML and 39 (78%) with ALL. Among these, five patients with AML (one M2, two M4, and two M5)(More)
The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding(More)
Two microsatellites were isolated from a genomic library of Echinococcus multilocularis. The microsatellites, designated EMms1 and EMms2, consist of tandem repeats of CAC-trinucleotide unit. Southern blot hybridization suggests that each of them is a single locus. Using fox-derived wild tapeworms (N=104), PCR-amplification of microsatellites was performed(More)
CD44 is a cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although CD44 has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we find that CD44 expressed in cancer cells is cleaved at the membrane-proximal region of the ectodomain and the membrane-bound cleavage(More)
Cadherins are major cell-cell adhesion molecules in both tumor and normal tissues. Although serum levels of soluble E-cadherin have been shown to be higher in the cancer patients than in healthy volunteers, the detail mechanism regulating release of soluble E-cadherin remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the ectodomain of E-cadherin is(More)
Intraspecific genetic variation of Echinococcus multilocularis, the etiologic agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, has been evaluated among 76 geographic isolates from Europe, Asia and North America by using sequence data of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Relatively low genetic variation was found only in the mitochondrial DNA sequence consisting of 3(More)