A comprehensive energy model for wireless sensor networks is provided by considering seven key energy consumption sources some of which are ignored by currently available models. We demonstrate the importance of using such a comprehensive model by comparing it to other existing energy models in terms of the lifetime of a sensor node. We use our model toâ€¦ (More)

Extension of the lifetime for a sensor network is important for most if not all applications. We propose a method to extend network lifetime by introducing several special sensors with higher battery power than normal sensors. We use these special sensors as cluster heads until their battery capacity is reduced to that of a normal sensor node beforeâ€¦ (More)

In this work, handover probability, unnecessary handover probability, missing handover probability and wrong decision probability are computed for a five node network model. The four states of mobile node, namely Cooperative state, failed state, selfish state and malicious state are also modeled. The simulation results are presented for a case of bandwidthsâ€¦ (More)