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Spywares has become major problem now days. This type of software may track user activities online and offline, provide targeted advertising and/or hold in other types of uninvited activities. Password collection by spywares is increasing at a shocking pace [1]. The problem of entering sensitive data, such as passwords, from an untrusted machine, is(More)
— when a person joins in an organization, he becomes authorize to take some decisions on behalf of that organization; means he is given some authority to exercise. After some time, on the basis of his performance in the organization, he is given promotion and he becomes eligible to exercise to some higher authorities. And further, he may get some higher(More)
Wireless Sensor Networks are extensively used in various applications like automobiles, environment, satellite communications, forest and animal habitat, medical sensor applications, super market, etc. Application specific and generic protocols are being developed for various layers in WSN protocol stack. Localization is one of the main protocol in WSN to(More)
Mobile and wireless networks have developed significantly because of improved flexibility, reduced costs and adaptability to various technologies. In portable technologies, the main factor is node mobility, which causes frequent changes in network topology. Multicast routing protocols affects the performance of network topology. Routing paths in MANETs and(More)
Localization is an important feature in Wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Accuracy in node localization with proper synchronization and required localization of sensor nodes, save node energy and enhance the performance of communication network protocols. In this paper we propose distributed localization algorithms and assume position known Cluster Head (CH)(More)
As all the participating mobile nodes are mobile in nature in MANET and due to frequent movement of the participating mobile nodes, it is very difficult to predict the topology of the networks at any time. Which leads to frequent route failures and route discovery mechanism are required to activate very frequently, it causes a loss of significant amount of(More)