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HIF is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies have defined posttranslational modification by prolyl hydroxylation as a key regulatory event that targets HIF-alpha subunits for proteasomal destruction via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex. Here, we define a conserved HIF-VHL-prolyl(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. In oxygenated and iron replete cells, HIF-alpha subunits are rapidly destroyed by a mechanism that involves ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) E3 ligase complex. This process is suppressed by(More)
Human cells have evolved complex signaling networks to coordinate the cell cycle. A detailed understanding of the global regulation of this fundamental process requires comprehensive identification of the genes and pathways involved in the various stages of cell-cycle progression. To this end, we report a genome-wide analysis of the human cell cycle, cell(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.;(More)
We describe a general and rapid route for the addition of unnatural amino acids to the genetic code of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five amino acids have been incorporated into proteins efficiently and with high fidelity in response to the nonsense codon TAG. The side chains of these amino acids contain a keto group, which can be uniquely modified in vitro and(More)
Here, we report a generally applicable PEGylation methodology based on the site-specific incorporation of para-azidophenylalanine into proteins in yeast. The azido group was used in a mild [3+2] cycloaddition reaction with an alkyne derivatized PEG reagent to afford selectively PEGylated protein. This strategy should be useful for the generation of(More)
Using a novel genetic selection, we have identified a series of mutants of the E. coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase that selectively charge an amber suppressor tRNA with p-(propargyloxy)phenylalanine and p-azidophenylalanine in yeast. These evolved tRNA-synthetase pairs can be used to site-specifically label proteins with functional groups orthogonal to normal(More)
Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) catalyses the oxidative ring expansion of penicillin N, the committed step in the biosynthesis of cephamycin C by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to investigate the seven Arg residues for activity (74, 75, 160, 162, 266, 306 and 307), selected on the basis of the DAOCS crystal(More)
Since it possesses a 3-methyl group, phytanic acid is degraded by a peroxisomal alpha-oxidation pathway, the first step of which is catalyzed by phytanoyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PAHX). Mutations in human PAHX cause phytanic acid accumulations leading to Adult Refsum's Disease (ARD), which is also observed in a sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2)-deficient mouse(More)
Mammalian metabolism of some lipids including 3-methyl and 2-methyl branched-chain fatty acids occurs within peroxisomes. Such lipids, including phytanic and pristanic acids, are commonly found within the human diet and may be derived from chlorophyll in plant extracts. Due to the presence of a methyl group at its beta-carbon, the well-characterised(More)