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Bacterial phenotypes result from responses to environmental conditions under which these organisms grow; reduced gravity has been demonstrated in many studies as an environmental condition that profoundly influences microorganisms. In this study, we focused on low-shear stress, modeled reduced gravity (MRG) conditions and examined, for Escherichia coli and(More)
The effect of actinomycin D on HeLa cells was studied by live fluorescence and transmission-through-dye microscopy—a recently developed technique that permits volume measurements in live cells. In particular, it is well suited for the observation and quantification of the apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), which is widely viewed as an essential feature of(More)
Conventional light microscopy techniques are poorly suited for imaging the vertical cell dimension. This can be accomplished using transmission-through-dye (TTD) imaging, in which cell thickness is directly converted into image intensity in the presence of extracellular dye with strong absorption. We have previously described applications of TTD to living(More)
Background: Bacterial phenotypes result from responses to environmental conditions under which these organisms grow; reduced gravity has been demonstrated in many studies as an environmental condition that profoundly influences microorganisms. In this study, we focused on low-shear stress, modeled reduced gravity (MRG) conditions and examined, for(More)
Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We(More)
Most cells carry a negative electric charge. It produces a potential difference across the membrane, which regulates voltage-sensitive ion transport and ATP synthesis in mitochondria. The negative charge comes partly from an excess of negative ions in the cell interior (Donnan potential) and partly from ionized groups on the membrane (surface potential). In(More)
Whereas molecular mechanisms of cell desensitisation have been discussed at length in the literature, little organised information on the methods for studying desensitisation of cellular responses has been published. In this article, three commonly utilised protocols for studying homologous desensitisation of cellular responses are evaluated. These are (1)(More)
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