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BACKGROUND Complete deletion of the complete AZFc interval of the Y chromosome is the most common known genetic cause of human male infertility. Two partial AZFc deletions (gr/gr and b1/b3) that remove some copies of all AZFc genes have recently been identified in infertile and fertile populations, and an association study indicates that the resulting gene(More)
Transcriptional silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis (MSCI) is conserved among organisms with limited sex chromosome synapsis, including mammals. Since the 1990s the prevailing view has been that MSCI in mammals is transient, with sex chromosome reactivation occurring as cells exit meiosis. Recently, we found that any chromosome region(More)
DFFRY (the Y-linked homologue of the DFFRX Drosophila fat-facets related X gene) maps to proximal Yq11.2 within the interval defining the AZFa spermatogenic phenotype. The complete coding region of DFFRY has been sequenced and shows 89% identity to the X-linked gene at the nucleotide level. In common with DFFRX , the potential amino acid sequence contains(More)
The Delta Sxrb deletion interval of the mouse Y chromosome contains Spy, a spermatogenesis factor gene(s) whose expression is essential for the postnatal development of the mitotic germ cells, spermatogonia. The boundaries of Delta Sxrb are defined by the duplicated genes Zfy1 and Zfy2 and four further genes have previously been mapped within the interval:(More)
Protocadherins are members of the cadherin superfamily involved in cell-cell interactions critical in the development of the central nervous system. This paper describes the isolation, sequence, and expression analysis of two novel protocadherin genes from the hominid specific Yp11.2/Xq21.3 block of homology between the sex chromosomes. The X-(PCDHX) and(More)
A new mouse Y chromosome gene, Smcy, has been isolated from the region encoding Spy, a spermatogenesis gene and Hya and Sdma, the genes that, respectively, control the expression of the male specific minor histocompatibility antigen H-Y, as measured by specific T-cell assays and the serologically detected male antigen SDMA. Smcy is well conserved on the Y(More)
Deletions of the AZFc interval of the human Y chromosome are found in >5% of male patients with idiopathic infertility and are associated with a severely reduced sperm count. The most common deletion type is large (>1 Mb) and removes members of the Y-borne testis-specific gene families of BPY2, CDY1, DAZ, PRY, RBMY2 and TTY2, which are candidate AZF genes.(More)
A new gene, designated Smcx, was cloned from the mouse X chromosome by its homology to the Y located gene Smcy. Using direct in situ hybridisation Smcx was mapped to the distal end of the mouse X chromosome (XF2-XF4) and its human homologue, SMCX, was mapped to proximal Xp (Xp11.1-Xp11.2). Further meiotic mapping in the mouse placed Smcx in the Plp-Pdha1(More)
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that lymphovascular invasion adds prognostic information to histological grade and tumour size in node-negative invasive carcinoma of the breast. Lymphovascular invasion was assessed in haematoxylin and eosin tumour sections from 2760 patients with node-negative invasive breast carcinoma treated with definitive(More)