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at seminars at the INRA Paris-Grignon and the CEPII for helpful comments.
International trade can affect the environment in different ways. This may justify the introduction of border measures by the importing countries. However, abuse of environmental arguments for protectionist reasons is likely. In order to disentangle protectionism from dispositions justified on the grounds of true environmental concerns, we systematically… (More)
This paper aims at rehabilitating direct measures of protection. Arguments in favour of a measurement of protection at the most detailed level are considered firstly. Detailed information raises aggregation issues. It also raises issues related to the practical implementation of the methodology: a very detailed analysis – conducted at the tariff line level… (More)