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Converging data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) production by cytokine-induced immune cells in demyelinating lesions is involved in multiple sclerosis (MS). High levels of NO may complex to suitable amino acids, causing an immune response against the formed neo-epitopes. By testing MS sera with chemically defined nitroso-amino acids conjugated to carrier(More)
Neuronal connections are established through a series of developmental events that involve close communication between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In the visual system, BDNF modulates the development of neuronal connectivity by influencing presynaptic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. Increasing BDNF levels in the optic tectum of Xenopus tadpoles(More)
The vertebrate habenulae (Hb) is an evolutionary conserved dorsal diencephalic nuclear complex that relays information from limbic and striatal forebrain regions to the ventral midbrain. One key feature of this bilateral nucleus is the presence of left-right differences in size, cytoarchitecture, connectivity, neurochemistry and/or gene expression. In(More)
When food is available during a restricted and predictable time of the day, animals show increased locomotor and food searching behaviors before the anticipated daily meal. We had shown that histamine-containing neurons are the only aminergic neurons related to arousal that become active in anticipation of an upcoming meal. To further map, the brain regions(More)
Methyl CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) is an essential epigenetic regulator in human brain development. Mutations in the MeCP2 gene have been linked to Rett syndrome, a severe X-linked progressive neurodevelopmental disorder, and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females. MeCP2 duplication and triplication have also been found to affect(More)
Although progress has been made in resolving the genetic pathways that specify neuronal asymmetries in the brain, little is known about genes that mediate the development of structural asymmetries between neurons on left and right. In this study, we identify daam1a as an asymmetric component of the signalling pathways leading to asymmetric morphogenesis of(More)
Synaptogenesis is a dynamic process that involves structural changes in developing axons and dendrites as synapses form and mature. The visual system of Xenopus laevis has been used as a model to study dynamic changes in axons and dendrites as synapses form in the living brain and the molecular mechanisms that control these processes. Brain-derived(More)