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We consider quantum systems consisting of a " small " system coupled to two reservoirs (called open systems). We show that such a system has no equilibrium states normal with respect to any state of the decoupled system in which the reservoirs are at different temperatures, provided that either the temperatures or the temperature difference divided by the(More)
This note is dedicated to H. Ezawa on the occasion of his 70 th birthday, with respect and affection. 1 Time-dependent thermodynamic processes In this note we describe some results concerning non-relativistic quantum systems at positive temperature and density confined to macroscopically large regions, Λ, of physical space R 3 which are under the influence(More)
The general theory of simple transport processes between quantum mechanical reservoirs is reviewed and extended. We focus on thermoelectric phenomena, involving exchange of energy and particles. The theory is illustrated on the example of two reservoirs of free fermions coupled through a local interaction. We construct a stationary state and determine(More)
To assess the reliability of the Burdizzo procedure for castrating calves and lambs, testicular tissue from 63 bull calves (15 intact and 48 castrated) and 69 male lambs (35 intact and 34 castrated) was collected at slaughter and assessed histologically. The bull calves were castrated at either one, four to five or 12 to 16 weeks of age and the lambs at(More)