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Predation can be intense, creating strong direct and indirect effects throughout food webs. In addition, ecologists increasingly recognize that fluxes of organisms across ecosystem boundaries can have major consequences for community dynamics. Species with complex life histories often shift habitats during their life cycles and provide potent conduits(More)
Understanding the factors that control the mortality rates of species in their natural environments is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of populations, communities and ecosystems. Here, we test a model of natural mortality that yields explicit, quantitative predictions based on the constraints of body size and temperature on individual(More)
The functional response is a critical link between consumer and resource dynamics, describing how a consumer's feeding rate varies with prey density. Functional response models often assume homogenous prey size and size-independent feeding rates. However, variation in prey size due to ontogeny and competition is ubiquitous, and predation rates are often(More)
More than 2 y have passed since the BP-Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, yet we still have little understanding of its ecological impacts. Examining effects of this oil spill will generate much-needed insight into how shoreline habitats and the valuable ecological services they provide (e.g., shoreline protection) are affected by and(More)
To effectively balance investment in predator defenses versus other traits, organisms must accurately assess predation risk. Chemical cues caused by predation events are indicators of risk for prey in a wide variety of systems, but the relationship between how prey perceive risk in relation to the amount of prey consumed by predators is poorly understood.(More)
The benefits in survival gained from predator-induced phenotypes often come at a cost to other components of fitness. Therefore, the level of expression of an induced phenotype should mirror the level of risk in the environment. When a predator exhibits a saturating functional response the risk of mortality to a given prey decreases as prey density(More)
Emerging concepts in developmental biology, such as facilitated variation and dynamical patterning modules, address a major shortcoming of the Modern Synthesis in Biology: how genotypic variation is transduced into functional yet diverse phenotypic variation. Still, we lack a theory to explain how variation at the cellular and tissue level is coordinated(More)
Morphological relationships change with overall body size and body size often varies among populations. Therefore, quantitative analyses of individual traits from organisms in different populations or environments (e.g., in studies of phenotypic plasticity) often adjust for differences in body size to isolate changes in allometry. Most studies of among(More)
Since the modern evolutionary synthesis was first proposed early in the twentieth century, attention has focused on assessing the relative contribution of mutation versus natural selection on protein evolution. Here we test a model that yields general quantitative predictions on rates of protein evolution by combining principles of individual energetics(More)
The combined effects of multiple predators often cannot be predicted from their independent effects. Emergent multiple predator effects (MPEs) include risk enhancement, where combined predators kill more prey than predicted by their individual effects, and risk reduction, where fewer prey are killed than predicted. Current methods for detecting MPEs are(More)