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Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can potently suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and prevent progression to AIDS. However, HAART does not cure infected patients. Instead, HIV persists in latently infected CD4+ T cells and various cryptic cellular reservoirs. Hence, under current therapy regimens, patients must continue(More)
Antiretroviral therapy is currently only capable of controlling HIV replication rather than completely eradicating virus from patients. This is due in part to the establishment of a latent virus reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, which persists even in the presence of HAART. It is thought that forced activation of latently infected cells could induce virus(More)
Transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) modified with a lentiviral vector bearing a potent nontoxic short hairpin RNA (sh1005) directed to the HIV coreceptor CCR5 is capable of continuously producing CCR5 downregulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we characterized HIV-1 resistance of the sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo in(More)
We report a novel approach to a new class of bioengineered, monodispersed, self-assembling vault nanoparticles consisting of a protein shell exterior with a lipophilic core interior designed for drug and probe delivery. Recombinant vaults were engineered to contain a small amphipathic α-helix derived from the nonstructural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus,(More)
This paper presents a new approach to crowd behaviour anomaly detection that uses a set of efficiently computed, easily interpretable, scene-level holistic features. This low-dimensional descriptor combines two features from the literature: crowd collectiveness [1] and crowd conflict [2], with two newly developed crowd features: mean motion speed and a new(More)
The United Kingdom National Health Service treats both elective and emergency patients and seeks to provide high quality care, free at the point of delivery. Equal numbers of emergency and elective general surgical procedures are performed, yet surgical training prioritisation and organisation of NHS institutions is predicated upon elective care. The(More)
Our main objective of this study was to determine how Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) avoids induction of the antiviral Type I Interferon (IFN) system. To limit viral infection, the innate immune system produces important antiviral cytokines such as the IFN. IFN set up a critical roadblock to virus infection by limiting further replication of a virus.(More)
Background: Many HIV databases and applications focus on a limited domain of HIV knowledge. Since even a ''simple'' organism like HIV represents a very complex system with many interacting elements, the fractured structure of existing databases and applications likely limits our ability to investigate and understand HIV. To facilitate research, therefore,(More)
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